Energy and Environment for Prelims

Coal Gasification – UPSC Prelims

Coal Gasification: Process: Coal gasification is a process in which coal is partially oxidised with air, oxygen, steam or carbon dioxide to form a fuel gas. This gas is then used instead of piped natural gas, methane and others for deriving energy. In-situ gasification of coal – or Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) – is the technique of converting …

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Perovskite Solar Cells(PSC) – UPSC Prelims

Perovskite Solar Cells(PSC): Perovskite Solar Cells(PSC) is a type of solar cell that includes a perovskite-structured compound, most commonly a hybrid organic-inorganic lead or tin halide-based material, as the light-harvesting active layer. PSCs have become commercially attractive because of the potential of achieving even higher efficiencies and very low production costs. However, the challenge lies in …

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Natural gas – UPSC Prelims

Facts: The government will invest around 60 billion USD in creating gas infrastructure in the country till 2024 and increasing gas’s share in the energy mix up to 15% by 2030. Currently, gas accounts for 6% in the country’s total energy mix. At present close to half of Natural Gas demand is fulfilled by imports. At present, India is fourth largest importer of LNG. What …

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Compressed Bio-gas – UPSC Prelims

Bio-gas is produced naturally through process of anaerobic decomposition from waste and bio-mass sources like agriculture residue, cattle dung, municipal solid waste, sugarcane press mud, sewage treatment plant (STP) waste, etc. It is called CBG after biogas is purified and compressed, which has pure methane content of over 95%. CBG is exactly similar to commercially …

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Lithium Ion Batteries – UPSC Prelims

Lithium Ion Batteries: A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery is a type of rechargeable battery. Lithium-ion battery is the most dominant battery system finding applications for variety of societal needs including handy consumer electronics goods such as mobile phones, laptops, cameras and many other portable consumer gadgets apart from industrial applications and aerospace. Most of the …

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Mercury Pollution – UPSC Prelims

Mercury pollution Mercury is a naturally occurring element that is found in air, water and soil. Exposure to mercury, even small amounts, may cause serious health problems, and is a threat to the development of the child in utero and early in life. Mercury may have toxic effects on the nervous, digestive and immune systems, and on lungs, kidneys, skin and …

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Bharat Stage Norms – UPSC Prelims

Bharat Stage Norms Bharat stage norms are emission standards instituted by Government to regulate output of air pollutants from internal combustion engine equipment, including motor vehicles. The standards and timeline for implementation are set by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) under Ministry of Environment & Forests and climate change. The standards are based on European …

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Biomethane – UPSC Prelims

Biomethane is a naturally occurring gas. It is produced by anaerobic digestion of organic matter such as dead animal and plant material, manure, sewage, organic waste, etc. Biomethanation is the process by which organic material is microbiologically converted to biogas, under anaerobic conditions. This gas is produced out of natural degradation process and escapes into …

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