Compressed Bio-gas – UPSC Prelims

  • Bio-gas is produced naturally through process of anaerobic decomposition from waste and bio-mass sources like agriculture residue, cattle dung, municipal solid waste, sugarcane press mud, sewage treatment plant (STP) waste, etc.
  • It is called CBG after biogas is purified and compressed, which has pure methane content of over 95%.
  • CBG is exactly similar to commercially available natural gas in its composition and energy potential.
  • Its calorific value  and other properties are similar to CNG.
  • CBG can be used as alternative, renewable automotive fuel.
  • It has potential to replace CNG in automotive, industrial and commercial uses in the coming years, given the abundance of biomass in the country.
  • Advantages of converting agricultural residue, cattle dung and municipal solid waste into CBG on commercial scale are
    • It results in responsible waste management, reduction in carbon emissions and pollution.
    • It generates additional revenue source for farmers.
    • It boosts entrepreneurship, rural economy and employment.
    • It supports national commitments in achieving climate change goals
    • It also helps in reduction in import of natural gas and crude oil.
    • It also serves as buffer against crude oil and gas price fluctuations.
Government Initiative to promote CBG:
  1. Sustainable Alternative to Affordable Transport(SATAT) Initiative: It was launched in October 2018 to promote the Compressed Biogas (CBG)
  2. The scheme targeted the production of 15 million metric tonnes (MMT) of CBG by 2023.
  3. Public sector undertakings oil marketing companies(OMCs) including IOCL partnered with potential entrepreneurs under this initiative to set up plants and supply CBG to them for sale as automotive and industrial fuels.