Questions in UPSC Mains 2021 from IAS4Sure Notes

Most of the questions in UPSC Mains 2021 could be answered from IAS4Sure Notes. We have provided links to notes using which questions could be asked. Please check “Last update date” to get an idea about how old topics are asked in UPSC.

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GS 2 UPSC Mains 2021

UPSC QuestionSource from IAS4Sure Notes
Q1. ‘Constitutional Morality’ is rooted in the Constitution itself and is founded on its essential facets. Explain the doctrine of ‘Constitutional Morality’ with the help of relevant judicial decisions. (150 words, 10 marks) Definition of Constitutional Morality and SC Judgement 1

SC Judgement 2

SC Judgement 3
Q2. Discuss the desirability of greater representation to women in the higher judiciary to ensure diversity, equity and inclusiveness. (150 words, 10 marks) Gender Sensitisation in Judiciary

Gender Stereotypes
Q3. How have the recommendations of the 14th Finance Commission of India enabled the states to improve their fiscal position? (150 words, 10 marks) Federalism

Fiscal Federalism

15th FC: Analysis

Decentralisation of Human Capital

Q4. To what extent, in your view, the Parliament is able to ensure accountability of the executive in India? (150 words, 10 marks) Disruptions in Parliament

How to improve Legislative functioning?

Reducing oversight of Parliament

Importance of Legislative scrutiny
Q5. “Pressure groups play a vital role in influencing public policy making in India.” Explain how the business associations contribute to public policies. (150 words, 10 marks) Interest Groups

Pressure Groups: Diagram
Q6. “Besides being a moral imperative of Welfare State, primary health structure is a necessary pre-condition for sustainable development.” Analyze. (150 words, 10 marks) Low Healthcare expenditure in India

Healthcare infrastructure needs an urgent fix

Inequality Report 2021: India’s unequal healthcare story
Q7. “‘Earn while you learn’ scheme needs to be strengthened to make vocational education and skill training meaningful.” Comment. (150 words, 10 marks)  Skill Gap in Youth

Linking Skill Development with Education

Apprenticeship Rules Changed

Skill India Mission
Q8. Can the vicious cycle of gender inequality, poverty and malnutrition be broken through microfinancing of women SHGs? Explain with examples. (150 words, 10 marks) Role of SHG in Domestic Violence

SHG Facts

Lakhpati SHG Women Initiative
Q9. “If the last few decades were of Asia’s growth story, the next few are expected to be of Africa’s.” In the light of this statement, examine India’s influence in Africa in recent years. (150 words, 10 marks) India-Africa Relations

Scope of Agriculture in Africa

India-Africa Forum
Q10. “The USA is facing an existential threat in the form of a China, that is much more challenging than the erstwhile Soviet Union.” Explain. (150 words, 10 marks)


Rise of China

Wolf Warrior Diplomacy

Threat of China’s Nuclear Capabilities
Q11. The jurisdiction of the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) regarding lodging an FIR and conducting probe within a particular state is being questioned by various States. However, the power of States to withhold consent to the CBI is not absolute. Explain with special reference to the federal character of India. (250 words, 15 marks)

General Consent to CBI
Q12. Though the Human Rights Commissions have contributed immensely to the protection of human rights in India, yet they have failed to assert themselves against the mighty and powerful. Analyzing their structural and practical limitations, suggest remedial measures. (250 words, 15 marks)

Q13. Analyze the distinguishing features of the notion of Equality in the Constitutions of the USA and India. (250 words, 15 marks)

Q14. Explain the constitutional provisions under which Legislative Councils are established. Review the working and current status of Legislative Councils with suitable illustrations. (250 words, 15 marks)

Legislative Council in each state

Legislative Councils

Undermining upper house
Q15. Do Department -related Parliamentary Standing Committees keep the administration on its toes and inspire reverence for parliamentary control? Evaluate the working of such committees with suitable examples. (250 words, 15 marks)
Role of Committees in Legislature

Reducing Parliamentary Oversight

Departmental Standing Committee
Q16. Has digital illiteracy, particularly in rural areas, couple with lack of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) accessibility hindered socio-economic development? Examine with justification. (250 words, 15 marks)

Impact of Digital Inequality on Health and Education

Roadmap for Digitally Inclusive India : NITI Ayog Report
Q17. “Though women in post-Independent India have excelled in various fields, the social attitude towards women and feminist movement has been patriarchal.” Apart from women education and women empowerment schemes, what interventions can help change this milieu? (250 words, 15 marks)

Gender Stereotypes

India Vs Bangaldesh : Stats on Women

Horizontal Reservation for Women

Gender Gap in access to Technology

Increasing Gender Gap in India
Q18. Can Civil Society and Non-Governmental Organizations present an alternative model of public service delivery to benefit the common citizen. Discuss the challenges of this alternative model. (250 words, 15 marks)

Civil Society and its need

Civil Society and Good Governance

Need to strengthen Civil Society

NGO Foreign Funding – FCRA
Q19. Critically examine the aims and objectives of SCO. What importance does it hold for India. (250 words, 15 marks)
SCO and India

SCO India Relations

Q20. The newly tri-nation partnership AUKUS is aimed at countering China’s ambitions in the Indo-Pacific region. Is it going to supersede the existing partnerships in the region? Discuss the strenght and impact of AUKUS in the present scenario. (250 words, 15 marks)

Context of AUKUS and its implications

AUKUS Security Groupings

GS 3 UPSC Mains 2021

UPSC QuestionSource from IAS4Sure Notes
Q1. Explain the difference between computing methodology of India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) before the year 2015 and after the year 2015. (150 words, 10 marks)  New GDP Series

Q2. Distinguish between Capital Budget and Revenue Budget. Explain the components of both these Budgets. (150 words, 10 marks)  Balance of Payments 
Q3. How did land reforms in some parts of the country help to improve the socio-economic conditions of marginal and small farmers? (150 words, 10 marks)  Land Reforms in India
Land Reforms : Diagrams
Q4. How and to what extent would micro-irrigation help in solving India’s water crisis? (150 words, 10 marks) 
Q5. How is S-400 air defence system technically superior to any other system presently available in the world? (150 words, 10 marks)  S-400 Air Defence System
Q6. Explain the purpose of the Green Grid Initiative launched at World Leaders Summit of the COP26 UN Climate Change Conference in Glasgow in November, 2021. When was this idea first floated in the International Solar Alliance (ISA)? (150 words, 10 marks)  Green Grid Initiative
Q7. Describe the key points of the revised Global Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs) recently released by the World Health Organisation (WHO). How are these different from its last update in 2005? What changes in India’s National Clean Air Programme are required to achieve these revised standards? (150 words, 10 marks) 
Q8. Discuss about the vulnerability of India to earthquake related hazards. Give examples including the salient features of major disasters caused by earthquakes in different parts of India during the last three decades. (150 words, 10 marks)  Earthquake Management
Disasters in Uttarakhand
Glacial Lake Outburst
Q9. Discuss how emerging technologies and globalization contribute to money laundering. Elaborate measures to tackle the problem of money laundering both at national and international levels. (150 words, 10 marks) Prevention of Money Laundering Act
Bitcoin : Should India legalise it?
FATF – An Indian Perspective
Project Insight
Task Force to crackdown on Benami Firms
Q10. Keeping in view India’s internal security, analyse the impact of cross-border cyber-attacks. Also discuss defensive measures against these sophisticated attacks. (150 words, 10 marks) 

Chinese Cyber Attacks
Steps taken to strengthen Cyber Security
Cyber Security framework in India
Cyber Security of Civilian Infrastructure
Q11. Do you agree that the Indian economy has recently experienced V- shapes recovery?Give reasons in support of your answer. (250 words, 15 marks)

V Shaped Recovery

K Shaped Recovery

Why India is witnessing a K-Shaped recovery?
Q12. “Investment in infrastructure is essential for more rapid and inclusive economic growth. ”Discuss in the light of India’s experience. (250 words, 15 marks)

PM Gati Shakti – National Infrastructure Master Plan
Q13. What are the salient features of the National Food Security Act, 2013 ? How has the Food Security Bill helped in eliminating hunger and malnutrition in India? (250 words, 15 marks)

National Food Security Act 2013
Growing Food Security
Q14. What are the present challenges before crop diversification? How do emerging technologies provide an opportunity for crop diversification? (250 words, 15 marks)
Farmer Issues
Q15. What are the research and developmental achievements in applied biotechnology/? How will these achievements help to uplift the poorer sections of the society? (250 words, 15 marks)   

Indian Biotech Industry
Agrifood Lifescienecec in India
Q16. The Nobel Prize in Physics of 2014 was jointly awarded to Akasaki, Amano and Nakamura for the invention of Blue LEDs in 1990s. How has this invention impacted the everyday life of human beings? (250 words, 15 marks)

Q17. Describe the major outcomes of the 26th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). What are the commitments made by India in this conference? (250 words, 15 marks)
Glasgow Summit : Achievements

Glasgow Summit : India’s announcements 

Glasgow declaration on Zero emission cars

India’s Glasgow commitment status
Q18. Describe the various causes and the effects of landslides. Mention the important components of the National Landslide Risk Management Strategy. (250 words, 15 marks)
Q19. Analyse the multidimensıonal challenges posed by external state and non-state actors, to the internal security of India. Also discuss measures required to be taken to combat these threats. (250 words, 15 marks)
Changing equation in Kashmir
NE Boundary Issues
Chinese Cyber Attacks
ISIS in India
Khalistan Liberation Force
Boosting Maritime Security
Steps taken to strengthen Cyber Security
Q20. Analyse the complexity and intensity of terrorism, its causes, linkages and obnoxious nexus. Also suggest measures required to be taken to eradicate the menace of terrorism. (250 words, 15 marks)
Basic content for Terrorism
Terrorism in India
Central Anti Terrorism Unit
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