Vinayak Damodar Savarkar – UPSC Prelims

Vinayak Damodar Savarkar:
  • He was an Indian independence activist, politician, lawyer and writer.
  • He is also known as Swatantryaveer Savarkar.
  • Birth: Born on 28th May,1883 in Bhagur, a village near Nashik in Maharashtra.
  • Related Organisations and Work:
    • Founded a secret society called Abhinav Bharat Society.
    • Went to the United Kingdom and was involved with organizations such as India House and the Free India Society.
    • He was the president of Hindu Mahasabha from 1937 to 1943.
    • Savarkar wrote a book titled ‘The History of the War of Indian Independence’ in which he wrote about the guerrilla warfare tricks used in 1857 Sepoy Mutiny.
    • He also wrote the book ‘Hindutva: who is hindu?’.
  • Trial and Sentences:
    • Arrested in 1909 on charges of plotting an armed revolt against the Morley-Minto reform (Indian Councils Act 1909).
    • Arrested in 1910 for his connections with the revolutionary group India House.
    • One of the charges on Savarkar was abetment to murder of Nashik Collector Jackson and the second was waging a conspiracy under Indian Penal Code 121-A against the King emperor.
    • Following the two trials, Savarkar was convicted and sentenced to 50-years imprisonment also known as Kala Pani and transported in 1911 to the Cellular Jail in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  • Death: He died on 26th February 1966 due to fasting on his own wish of death.
Related Topics:
  • Abhinav Bharat Society (Young India Society)
    • It was a secret society founded by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar and his brother Ganesh Damodar Savarkar in 1904.
    • Initially founded at Nasik as Mitra Mela, the society was associated with several revolutionaries and political activists with branches in various parts of India and London.
  • India House
    • It was founded by Shyamji Kishan Verma in 1905 in London.
    • It was opened to promote nationalist views among Indian students in London.
  • Free India Society
    • Savarkar went to London in 1906. He soon founded the Free India Society, based on the thoughts of the Italian nationalist Giuseppe Mazzini (Savarkar had written a biography of Mazzini).
  • Hindu Mahasabha
    • Akhil Bharat Hindu Mahasabha is one of the oldest organizations of India as it was formed in 1907. Eminent leaders extended this Organization in 1915 on ALL India basis.
    • The Eminent personalities who founded this Organisation and who presided over the ALL INDIA Sessions held include Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, Lal Lajpat Rai, Veer Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, etc.