Ramsar Convention

  • Ramsar Convention:
    • It is an international treaty
    • It aims conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands
    • The convention provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources.
    • It was signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971
    • India is one of the 169 signatories to the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands
    • In India 49 sites are Ramsar site, which are spread across India from Wular Lake in Jammu and Kashmir to Ashtamudi Wetland in Kerala, and from Deepor Beel in Assam to Nal Sarovar in Gujarat.
    • The Ramsar Convention is the only global environmental treaty that deals with a particular ecosystem
    • The Convention uses a broad definition of the types of wetlands covered in its mission, including lakes and rivers, swamps and marshes, wet grasslands and peat lands, oases, estuaries, deltas and tidal flats, near-shore marine areas, mangroves and coral reefs, and human-made sites such as fish ponds, rice paddies, reservoirs, and salt pans.
    • Latest addition in Ramsar List are Khijadiya Bird Sanctuary in Gujarat and Bakhira Wildlife Sanctuary in Uttar Pradesh.
    • Montreux Record:
      • Montreux Record under the Convention is a register of wetland sites
      • It is a list of Wetlands of International Importance where changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring, or are likely to occur as a result of technological developments, pollution or other human interference.
      • It is maintained as part of the Ramsar List.
      • The Montreux Record was established by Recommendation of the Conference of the Contracting Parties (1990).
      • Sites may be added to and removed from the Record only with the approval of the Contracting Parties in which they lie.
      • At present, two wetlands of India are in Montreux Record:
        • Keoladeo National Park (Rajasthan) and
        • Loktak Lake (Manipur).
      • Chilika Lake (Odisha) was placed in the record but later removed from it.

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