Ramsar Convention

  • Ramsar Convention:
    • It is an international treaty
    • It aims conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands
    • The convention provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources.
    • It was signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971
    • India is one of the 169 signatories to the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands
    • In India 49 sites are Ramsar site, which are spread across India¬†from Wular Lake in Jammu and Kashmir to Ashtamudi Wetland in Kerala, and from Deepor Beel in Assam to Nal Sarovar in Gujarat.
    • The Ramsar Convention is the only global environmental treaty that deals with a particular ecosystem
    • The Convention uses a broad definition of the types of wetlands covered in its mission, including lakes and rivers, swamps and marshes, wet grasslands and peat lands, oases, estuaries, deltas and tidal flats, near-shore marine areas, mangroves and coral reefs, and human-made sites such as fish ponds, rice paddies, reservoirs, and salt pans.
    • Latest addition in Ramsar List are Khijadiya Bird Sanctuary in Gujarat and Bakhira Wildlife Sanctuary in Uttar Pradesh.
    • Montreux Record:
      • Montreux Record under the Convention is a register of wetland sites
      • It is a list of Wetlands of International Importance where changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring, or are likely to occur as a result of technological developments, pollution or other human interference.
      • It is maintained as part of the Ramsar List.
      • The Montreux Record was established by Recommendation of the Conference of the Contracting Parties (1990).
      • Sites may be added to and removed from the Record only with the approval of the Contracting Parties in which they lie.
      • At present, two wetlands of India are in Montreux Record:
        • Keoladeo National Park (Rajasthan) and
        • Loktak Lake (Manipur).
      • Chilika Lake¬†(Odisha) was placed in the record but later removed from it.

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