Amar Jawan Jyoti Vs National War Memorial – UPSC Prelims

Amar Jawan Jyoti:
  • Amar Jawan Jyoti is an Indian memorial conceptualised and constructed after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 and inaugurated on 26 January 1972.
  • It was located near India Gate.
  • It was the national war memorial in India until February 2019, when the new National War Memorial and its own immortal flame was inaugurated and lit.
  • On 21 January 2022, the older flame was merged with the newer one at National War Memorial.
  • It will be replaced by a grand statue of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose.
National War Memorial:
  • The National War Memorial in India is a national monument built to honour and remember soldiers of the Indian military who fought in armed conflicts of independent India.
  • Inaugurated in 2019, it is around 400 meters from India Gate.
  • The layout of the structure comprises four concentric circles, named:
    • the “Amar Chakra” or Circle of Immortality,
    • the “Veerta Chakra” or Circle of Bravery,
    • the “Tyag Chakra” or Circle of Sacrifice and
    • the “Rakshak Chakra” or Circle of Protection.
  • The proposal for a National War Memorial was first made in the 1960s.
  • The memorial is dedicated to soldiers who laid down their lives defending the nation during the Sino-Indian war in 1962, Indo-Pak wars in 1947, 1965 and 1971, Indian Peace Keeping Force Operations in Sri Lanka and in the Kargil Conflict in 1999.
  • Flame from Amar Jawan Jyoti was merged here.
  • The National War Memorial also commemorates the soldiers who participated and made supreme sacrifices in United Nations peace-keeping missions, Humanitarian Assistance Disaster Relief (HADR) operations, counterinsurgency operations and Low-Intensity Conflict Operations (LICO).
India Gate:
  • India Gate was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and was unveiled by Lord Irwin in 1931.
  • It was built to honour the soldiers of British India who died from 1914 to 1921.