Internet of Things – UPSC GS3

What is Internet of Things?
  • IoT is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines or objects that are provided with unique identifiers.
  • Thus it can be said that it is an internetworking of physical devices, vehicles, buildings and other items—embedded with electronics, software, sensors and network connectivity.
  • The internetworking has ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.
  • It allows objects to be sensed and controlled remotely across existing network infrastructure.
  • Thus it creates opportunities for more direct integration of physical world into computer-based systems, and resulting in improved accuracy, efficiency and economic benefits.
IoT can be said to involve three distinct stages:
  1. Sensors which collect data
  2. Application which collects and analyses this data for further consolidation
  3. Transmission of data to the decision-making server.
In India, the IoTs solutions can be used to address the following unique challenges:
  1. Creation of smart cities characterised by intelligent systems including – Smart traffic management systems, smart grids, waste management systems, transport systems et al.
  2. Smart Water – setting up tools to (a) detect the quality of water (b) provide real time information on leakages (c) monitor water level variation in rivers and dams for more proactive disaster management
  3. Smart Environment – setting up tools for monitoring CO2 emissions by factories/cars
  4. Smart Waste Management – setting up tool to assist the ‘SWACH BHARAT’ initiative such as systems which inform the municipal workers when trash containers are full.
  5. Smart Agriculture – setting up tools including systems for monitoring of soil moisture, earth density and pests and create an online update mechanism for farmers to enable precision farming operations.
  6. Smart Safety – setup tools such as wearable device for women, child and old people to ensure safety in public.
Events related to IoT:
  • IoT India Congress held in Bangalore
  • IoT Start-Up Awards
  • A team of researchers from IIT Hyderabad has been working to use the Internet of Things (IoT) to accurately diagnose kidney and liver disorders with the help of ultrasound scanning devices.
  • The technology can identify kidney stones and cysts and also grade a “fatty liver” classification. Even it can differentiate between cysts and stones in the kidney images.
  • What do you understand by the Internet of Things? Examine its likely impact on India. (200 Words)

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