Genomics – Human Genome Project – UPSC GS3

Genomics deals with the development of genome-scale technologies and their application to all areas of biological investigation. The Human Genome Project was an international scientific research project that determined the DNA sequence of the approximately 20,000 – 25,000 genes that make up the human genome. With its  completion genetic engineers could determine role played by different genes in human development, growth, diseases, and characteristics.

Till now this project has helped in achieving:
  1. Understanding Autism
  2. Providing cheap treatment of Brain tumors, breast cancer and leukemia are among the most common and lethal cancers.
  3. Understanding T1 Diabetes is possible and its effect on immune system and improve its treatment methods
  4. Discovery of species diversity in vaginal microbiome of pregnant women, and nasal microbiome of children explained.
  5. Increased understanding of Several diseases of Digestive Tract, skin, reproductive organs and childhood disorders
  6. Helps in for monitoring the status of genomic and meta-genomic projects worldwide and their associated metadata. creating a database in will help in understanding genetic cause of different diseases due to climate change around the world.
This project has helped doctors to understand cause of very fatal diseases. But it has also opened a ground for such genetic tests which may challenge natural cycle of birth and death of species.
What do you understand by “genomics”? Examine how far the Human Genome Project has helped in finding cures for human diseases. (200 Words)