Economic Survey 2022 : Social Infrastructure and Employment – UPSC GS3

Social Infrastructure and Employment:
  • Employment:
    • With revival of the economy, employment indicators bounced back to pre-pandemic levels during the last quarter of 2020-21.
    • As per the quarterly Periodic Labour Force Survey (PFLS) data up to March 2021, employment in urban sector affected by pandemic has recovered almost to the pre-pandemic level.
    • According to Employees Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO) data, formalisation of jobs continued during the second Covid wave; adverse impact of Covid on formalisation of jobs much lower than during the first Covid wave.
  • Social Infrastructure:
    • Expenditure on social services (health, education and others) by Centre and States as a proportion of GDP increased from 6.2% in 2014-15 to 8.6% in 2021-22 (BE)
    • As per the National Family Health Survey-5:
      • Total Fertility Rate (TFR) came down to 2 in 2019-21 from 2.2 in 2015-16.
      • Infant Mortality Rate (IMR), under-five mortality rate and institutional births have improved in 2019-21 over year 2015-16.
    • Under Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM), 83 districts have become ‘Har Ghar Jal’ districts.
    • Increased allotment of funds to Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MNREGS) to provide buffer for unorganised labour in rural areas during the pandemic.
    • In addition to the National Health Mission, Union Budget 2021-22, announced Ayushman Bharat Health Infrastructure Mission, a new Centrally Sponsored Scheme to develop capacities of primary, secondary and tertiary Health Care Systems, strengthen existing national institutions, and create new institutions to cater to detection and cure of new and emerging diseases.
    • India is among the few countries producing Covid vaccines. The country started with two made in India Covid vaccines. In line with India’s vision of Atmanirbhar Bharat, India’s first domestic Covid -19 vaccine, Whole Virion Inactivated Coronavirus Vaccine (COVAXIN), was developed and manufactured by Bharat Biotech International Limited in collaboration with National Institute of Virology of Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR).
    • The progress of vaccination should be seen not just as a health response indicator, but also as a buffer against economic disruptions caused by repeated pandemic waves.

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