Border Management – UPSC GS3

  • India to completely seal its 3323 KM long border with Pakistan by Dec, 2018
  • BSF to install KAVACH series laser walls which is capable of detecting intrusions and relaying information to the nearest post for action to safeguard the 198 km India-Pakistan international border in Jammu and Kashmir
Comprehensive Integrated Border Management System
  • Government has recently approved
  • 24x7x365 surveillance of the border through technology
  • It is a five-layer elaborate plan to completely stop infiltration on the 2,900-km western border with Pakistan.
  • It entails round-the-clock surveillance through sophisticated technology which in effect will totally “lock” India’s western border to prevent Pathankot-like terror attacks and smuggling
  • It would also help security forces catch those who help in infiltration from the Indian side of the border, as the radars would have a 360-degree coverage and the cameras would work day-and-night looking on both sides.
  • Five Layers include:
    CCTV cameras.Thermal image and night-vision devices.Battlefield surveillance radar.Underground monitoring sensors.Laser barriers.
Laser walls have been made operational along the India-Pakistan international border in Punjab to plug the porous riverine and treacherous terrain and keep an effective vigil against intruders and terrorists exploiting the frontier areas to cross over
Smart Fence
  • The Union Government had announced that work on installing smart fence along 3,323-km-long the India-Pakistan border will begin soon.
  • The new fence will have a multi-tier security ring comprising an alarm to security force personnel in case of any infiltration bid or attempts to cut the fence.
Issue with current fence:
  • The present one has a high rate of degradation due to snow and has to be repaired after every season which costs about Rs. 50-60 crore every year
  • Over time infiltrators have devised ways to cross it
 Current status:
  • The forces are already using CCTV cameras, night thermal imagers and sensors in sensitive areas. But the technology used is not superior
  • More than 1.5 Lakh flood lights have been installed on 50000 polls by government on border to track the movement along borders using binoculars
  • Satellites: India’s Border Security Force (BSF) is a regular user of satellite imagery
  • However, an issue with satellite imagery is that it may not provide real time information about a location, keeping in view the time taken by a satellite to orbit around the earth. Therefore, there are plans to employ Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) also
International Border:
  • It is a border which separates India and Pakistan territory according to Boundary Commission led by Britisher Cyril Radcliffe
  • It separates Gujarat and Rajasthan from Sindh Province of Pakistan, East Pakistan of India from West Pakistan of Pakistan (Wagha Line), and Jammu and Kashmir from Khyber Pakthkhuwa, formely North West Frontier Region (NWFP)
  • Its starts from Pillar No. 1175 in Rann of Kutch in Gujarat, India and ends at Akhnoor Region, Jammu and Kashmir
  • This is known as International Border (IB), Radcliffe Line, Working Boundary (in Pakistan)
Line of Control (LOC):
  • When Pakistani Army intruded Princely state of Jammu and Kashmir in October 1947, it led to First Kashmir War (1947-49).
  • Due to UN intervention, ceasefire (de facto) was demarcated between Indian and Pakistani Military in Jammu and Kashmir, which resulted in ending the war
  • This line divides the Princely States of Jammu and Kashmir into- Jammu, Kashmir Valley, Ladakh (Indian Controlled) & Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan (Pakistan Occupied Kashmir)
  • This line, after the Shimla Agreement(1972) between Indian PM Ms. Indira Gandhi and her Pakistani counterpart Zulfiar Ali Bhutto, came to be known as Line of Control (LOC)
  • LOC runs from Akhnoor Region of Jammu Valley to Point NJ9842.
  • This border is one of most dangerous border in the world
Violations facts:
  • Since 2014, there have been more than 900 ceasefire violations along the Pakistan border in Jammu.
  • At the LoC, which is under the operational control of the Army, 541 violations were reported during the same period. In these violations, 57 locals and 26 security personnel were killed.
Related Questions:
  1. Border management is a complex task due to difficult terrain and hostile relations with some countries. Elucidate the challenges and strategies for effective border management. (UPSC Mains 2016)

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