• NFHS-4 data reveals a significant decline in child malnutrition in India since the last decade
According to a study, the level of malnourishment is high among children whose parents migrate in search of livelihood. Critically examine why and suggest measures to address this problem. (200 Words)
With India striving hard to achieve its MDG targets and reduce malnutrition, the attention needs to be focused on especially vulnerable groups to correct the bigger picture. Migrants are one of these and mostly come from the low socio-economic strata. Most of the migration for livelihood is either cyclical or distress migration, the latter being most common.
The increased malnutrition among children of migrants basically stems from the fact that they have to compromise and adjust in harsh, unhygienic conditions and temporary settlements. The causes include
    1. Poor socio-economic conditions hence affordability of food hampered
    2. Temporary settlements leading to unhygienic conditions
    3. Child labour ex: brick kilns
    4. Lack of sanitation and open defecation
    5. Inadequate access to health facilities and immunization
    6. Inadequate and improper breast-feeding and weaning
    7. No access to PDS facilities due to migration leading to poor nutrition in mother and children.
    8. Content of diet does not suffice for diverse nutritional requirement of children
    9. Small land holdings leading to inadequate production
The main solution lies in preventing migration and hence multiple problems related to it by proper implementation of schemes like MGNREGA, PURA etc. The others include:
    1. Increasing access to Anganwadis
    2. Making PDS facilities available for migrants
    3. Provision of proper houses and sanitation facilities
    4. Considering migrants as ―vulnerable groups and chalking out special programmes
    5. Identification of migrants and help from local PR institutions
    6. Regular health camps in identified areas
The complexity of the problems calls for a multi-pronged approach including the state, NGOs and change in policy outlooks
Discuss the causes of persisting childhood malnutrition in India. (200 Words)
Malnutrition is responsible for nearly 45 per cent of deaths under five in India.  Malnutrition in India is related to various factors and they are multidimensional, long before Ex-Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, called malnutrition as matter of national shame.
The causes for malnutrition are:
    1. Poverty: Household food insecurity (NFSA is yet not effective, Mid-Day Meals and  Supplementary iron and vitamins should be encouraged more).
    2. Illiteracy:
      1. Illiteracy especially in women
      2. Ignorance about nutritional needs of infants and young children and repeated infections further aggravate the situation.
      3. Right to Education Act can change scenario,
      4. NGO and community welfare programmes will also educate women about family planning and child nourishment.
      5. Cases of severe acute under-nutrition are managed at home with simplified protocols and also clinically (wherever required) under appropriate medical supervision.
    3. Social strains on Women:
      1. Early marriages of girls
      2. Teenage pregnancies resulting in low birth weight of the new-borns
      3. Poor breastfeeding practices
      4. Poor complementary feeding practices
      5. Schemes Like: RGSEAG namely SABLA and Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojna (IGMSY) should be implemented comprehensively.
    4. Lack of infrastructure:
      1. Poor access to health services (Rural Health Mission need to sharpen and implemented tactfully)
      2. Lack of availability of safe drinking water
      3. Poor sanitation and environmental conditions and low purchasing power etc.
      4. MNREGA has helped to achieve some milestones but much still needs to be done to improve rural infrastructure.
As mentioned above and there are number of other factors such as environmental, geographical, agricultural, and cultural have contribute effects resulting in malnutrition.
Why women fare badly on nutritional health indicators in India when an average girl child aged less than 5 years is healthier than her male peers? Explain the causes of these gender gaps in nutritional status and significance of these causes. (200 Words)
Girls have better health status then their boys counterpart under 5 year according to rapid survey on children 2014-15. But women in adolescence and after 20s show a poor health indicator due to following causes:
    1. Patriarchal mind-set: men are treated superior To women, so more focus on male nutritional diet.
    2. Early marriage: Due to marriage of girls before maturity, loss to their health due to hormonal change.
    3. Abortion: More abortion for the greed of male child led to degradation of her health.
    4. Breastfeeding : during this period health becomes weak and required more diet and rest well but due to illiteracy  and social norms no proper diet given to her and all house burden on her.
    5. Some customs which allow women to eat after their husband, left no suffice food .
    6. Most of adolescent girls are anaemic and underweight and when they become mothers, they give birth to underweight babies and so the vicious cycle continues
    7. Lack of access to healthcare and not much successful AANGANWADI and ASHA scheme.
    1. high MMR AND IMR.
    2. economic burden due to buy medicine for poor health.
    3. in spite of large demographic dividend, cannot be used at large level.
Steps taken:
    1. Weekly Iron Folic Acid Supplementation for adolescent (19-20 age) for anaemia treatment and fortified food must help them.
    2. SABLA scheme by GoI
Thus only focus toward children heath indicators doesn’t give a clear picture but there should be more schemes for adolescent and married women to keep their health nutritious which is essential for utilize the whole working population.



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