73rd CAA gave constitutional status to Local bodies. Local Governments before 73rd amendment were totally dependent upon respective state government as far as finances, election to these bodies and autonomy to these bodies are considered. 73rd Amendment empowers the State to create Panchayats at village, intermediate and district levels and provides the State with powers to empower them in their functioning.
The local body’s election depends upon the will of the state governments and there are incidences when these elections were due for years. Local bodies don’t have their say on development programs and they didn’t have powers to raise their own finances through local taxation and additionally state governments were not constitutionally bound to provide them with compulsory financial assistance and there was not any devised formula which can decide about their share in state revenue.
After 73rd amendment three tier of Panchayati raj has been formulated and established as per the nomenclature suited to respective state government it has made obligatory at the end of state government to conduct regular election of local bodies there say is made mandatory for development project in their area for implementation of most of the programs like MGNAREGA gram panchayat has been made nodal agency. To devise the formula for grants to local bodies state finance commission every 5 year has been established local bodies has given autonomy to raise their finances by local taxes.
So Differences before and after:
- Regular elections. State Election commission
- State Finance commission
- Reservation for ST/SC/Women
- 3 tiered panchayat system
- Constitutional recognition
Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes according to their proportion of population w.r.t to the population of the State. It also provides for reservation of not less than 1/3rd of total seats for women which would include 1/3rd reservation of seats for women in the SC and ST quota. It also provides for such reservation to the posts of Chairpersons. It also empowers the State to provide for such reservation to any backward class of citizens as it sees fit. It has led to upliftment of disadvantaged classes and women. It has worked in undermining the hegemony of upper caste domination.
Women reservation has provided us with evidence of better functioning of Panchayats in terms of goals and finances where women are elected as heads. It has helped bring concerns of disadvantaged classes to the fore encouraging grassroots democracy and upliftment of such sections where they are stigmatized the most.
It can be said that 73rd amendment was a great leap forward in making local bodies autonomous and in ensuring their contribution necessary in any project of public importance.
The two decades since have seen a considerable expansion of local self-government in rural areas in India but it is still very far from Gandhi’s revolutionary conception of a village-centered economy and polity. Examine Gandhiji’s concept of self-reliant village republics and if this concept is still applicable to present day India. (200 Words)
What are the provisions for the reservations for the socially disadvantaged groups as per the 73rd amendment? Explain how these provisions have changed the profile of the leadership at the village level. (200 Words)
What were the main differences between the local governments before 73rd amendment and after that amendment? Examine. (200 Words)