Krishna Water Dispute

About Krishna River

  • The Krishna River is the second biggest river in peninsular India after Godavari River.
  • It originates near Mahabaleshwar (Satara) in Maharashtra.  
  • It then runs from four states Maharashtra (303 km), North Karnataka (480 km) and the rest of its 1300 km journey in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh before it empties into the Bay of Bengal.
 
What is Krishna Water Disputes Tribunal (KWDT)?
Krishna Water Disputes Tribunal (KWDT) is a tribunal set up by the Central Government in 1969 under the Interstate River Water Disputes Act, 1956 to resolve the disputes between the states of Karnataka, Maharashtra and then undivided Andhra Pradesh over sharing of Krishna river water.
 
The tribunal gave its award in 1973. The KWDT in its award outlined the exact share of each state. The award contended based on 75% dependability that the total quantum of water available for distribution was 2060TMC. This was divided between the three states in the following manner.
  • Maharashtra 560 TMC.
  • Karnataka 700 TMC.
  • Andhra Pradesh 800 TMC.
 
What is KWDT-II? (Facts are not important)
The tribunal in its first award provided for a review of its award after 31 May 2000. However no such review was taken up for more than 3 years after that.
  • In April 2004, the second KWDT, was constituted by the Government of India following requests by all three states.
  • The second Krishna Water Dispute Tribunal gave its draft verdict on 31 December 2010. The allocation of available water was done according to 65% dependability, considering the records of flow of water for past 47 years.
  • According to KWDT II, Andhra Pradesh got 1001 TMC of water, Karnataka 907 TMC and Maharashtra 666 TMC. Next review of water allocations will be after the year 2050.
 
What is the case now?
After reorganisation of  Andhra Pradesh, a case was filed by AP and Telangana to redistribute water among all 4 states. The KWDT-II pronounced its judgement on the litigation filed by Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. Both states in their petition had sought fresh allocation of Krishna River water among all four riparian states. They had urged that Section 89 in the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 meant redistribution of Krishna water among all the four riparian States not just between both of them.
 
What was KWDT-II verdict?
In its verdict, the tribunal said that Section 89 the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 was not applicable to all four riparian states but is meant only for Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. Thus, there was no need to re-allocate of Krishna River water among all four riparian states. The river water should be re-allocated between Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, from the share of undivided Andhra Pradesh.