Geography for Prelims

Antarctica – UPSC Prelims

Antarctica: Antarctica is uninhabited except for those manning the nearly 40 permanent stations established by several countries, including India, for carrying out scientific research. India maintains two research stations on the continent: ‘Maitri’ (commissioned in 1989) at Schirmacher Hills and ‘Bharati’ (2012) at Larsemann Hills. It has also launched 41 scientific expeditions every year thus far. Together with ‘Himadri’ station in …

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Zoji La Pass – UPSC Prelims

Zoji La Pass: Zoji La is a high mountain pass located in the Kargil district of Ladakh. The pass links Leh and Srinagar and provides an important link between Union Territories of Ladakh and Kashmir. Zoji la is known as the “Mountain Pass of Blizzards”. Zojila pass remains closed during winters due to heavy snowfall, cutting off Ladakh region from Kashmir. In 2018, …

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Arctic – UPSC Prelims

What is the Arctic? The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. Land within the Arctic region has seasonally varying snow and ice cover. It consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Alaska (United States), Canada, Finland, Greenland (Denmark), Iceland, Norway, Russia, and Sweden.

How are crops procured? – UPSC Prelims

How are crops procured? Objective: The Government policy of procurement of Food Grains has broad objectives of ensuring MSP to the farmers and availability of food grains to the weaker sections at affordable prices. It also ensures effective market intervention thereby keeping the prices under check and also adding to the overall food security of the country. …

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Wheat Crop in India – UPSC Prelims

Wheat Crop in India: Suitable Conditions: Wheat is a rabi crop that requires a cool growing season and bright sunshine at the time of ripening. Temperature: Between 10-15°C (Sowing time) and 21-26°C (Ripening & Harvesting) with bright sunlight. Rainfall: Around 75-100 cm. Soil Type: Well-drained fertile loamy and clayey loamy (Ganga-Satluj plains and black soil region of the Deccan). Top …

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Sugarcane Crop in India – UPSC Prelims

Sugarcane Crop in India: Suitable Conditions: Temperature: Between 21-27°C with hot and humid climate. Rainfall: Around 75-100 cm. Soil Type: Deep rich loamy soil. Top Sugarcane Producing States: Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Bihar. India is the second largest producer of sugarcane after Brazil. It can be grown on all varieties of soils ranging from sandy loam to clay loam given these …

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Greater Maldive Ridge – UPSC Prelims

Greater Maldive Ridge: The Maldive Ridge is an aseismic ridge that is not associated with earthquake activities. This ridge, located in the western Indian Ocean, southwest of India, is not well investigated. It is of paramount importance to gain knowledge on the structure and geodynamics of aseismic ridges as it provides valuable inputs towards understanding the evolution of …

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Saffron Cultivation – UPSC Prelims

Saffron: Saffron is a plant whose dried stigmas (thread-like parts of the flower) are used to make saffron spice. Saffron cultivation is believed to have been introduced in Kashmir by Central Asian immigrants around the 1st Century BCE. It has been associated with traditional Kashmiri cuisine and represents the rich cultural heritage of the region. It is a very precious and costly product. In …

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Anthropocene Era – UPSC Prelims

Anthropocene is an unofficial unit of geologic time. It describes the most recent period in Earth’s history when the human activity started to have a significant impact on the planet’s climate and ecosystems.  In 2010, biologist Eugene Stormer and chemist Paul Crutzen coined the term ‘Anthropocene’. Later the word gained immense popularity. The current epoch …

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