Features and Amendments


The Preamble reveals four ingredients or components: Source of authority of the Constitution: The Preamble states that the Constitution derives its authority from the people of India. Nature of Indian State: It declares India to be of a sovereign, socialist, secular democratic and republican polity. Objectives of the Constitution: It specifies justice, liberty, equality and …

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Basic Feature

The doctrine of Basic Structure of the Indian Constitution was evolved during the landmark judgement in Keshvananda Bharti case 1973. The basic structure concept implies that the Parliament’s power to amend Constitution (Article 368) is not  unfettered. So any law or amendment made is subject to the judicial review and the judiciary has the power …

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42nd Amendment

42nd Amendment Act: Enacted in 1976 during Emergency by Indira Gandhi Government It is regarded as one of the most controversial amendment Amendment had four major purposes: Exclude the courts entirely from election disputes; To strengthen the central government vis-à-vis the state governments and its Compatibility to rule the country as a unitary, not a …

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