Polymetallic Nodules

Polymetallic Nodules:
  • Polymetallic nodules (PMN) are also known as manganese nodules.
  • They are potato-shaped, largely porous nodules found in abundance carpeting the sea floor in the deep sea of the world oceans.
  • Besides manganese and iron, they contain nickel, copper, cobalt, lead, molybdenum, cadmium, vanadium, titanium.
  • Of these metals nickel, cobalt and copper are considered to be of economic and strategic importance.
  • Why in news? India has extended exclusive rights to explore polymetallic nodules from seabed in Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB).
India’s Efforts:
  • India was the first country to receive the status of a pioneer investor for exploration and utilization of polymetallic nodules.
  • It was allocated an exclusive area in Central Indian Ocean Basin by United Nations (UN) in 1987.
  • India is one among the top 8-countries to implement a long–term programme on exploration and utilization of Polymetallic Nodules.
  • Through Ministry of Earth Sciences it carries survey and exploration, environmental studies, technology development in mining and extractive metallurgy.

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