• Mosses are a common flowerless plant found in all cities especially in damp (humid) or shady locations.
  • It generally absorb water and nutrients from their immediate environments, so it can reflect changes to ecosystems.
  • So it can be used as potential bioindicators to monitor urban pollution and to measure the impact of atmospheric change.
  • As a bioindicator, mosses respond to pollution or drought-stress by changing its shape, density or disappearing.  
  • This characteristic will allow scientists to calculate atmospheric alterations and air pollution.
  • Drought-stress tends to occur in mosses found in areas with high levels of nitrogen pollution, which has negative impact on health and biodiversity