Montreux Convention – UPSC Prelims

What is the Montreux Convention?
  • It is an international agreement to regulate naval passage of Black Seas.
  • It was signed by Australia, Bulgaria, France, Greece, Japan, Romania, Yugoslavia, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and Turkey and has been in effect since November 1936.
  • The Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits gives Turkey control over the water route between the Black Sea.
  • It sets limits on the passage of civilian vessels and military warships through the Dardanelles and the Bosporus straits.
  • In the event of a war, the pact gives Turkey the right to regulate the transit of naval warships and to block the straits to warships belonging to the countries involved in the conflict.
  • Any country with coastline on the Black Sea – Romania, Bulgaria, Georgia, Russia or Ukraine – must notify Turkey eight days in advance of its intention to send vessels of war through the straits.
  • Other countries, the ones that don’t border the Black Sea, must give Turkey 15 days’ advance notice.
  • Why in news?
    • Turkey is set to activate the Montreux Convention in response to Russia’s War over Ukraine.
    • The declaration that situation in Ukraine had become a war, authorizes Turkey to activate the Montreux Convention and ban Russian war vessels from entering the Black Sea through the Bosporus and Dardanelles straits.
    • Turkey has used the convention’s powers before. During World War II, Turkey prevented the Axis powers from sending their warships to attack the Soviet Union – and blocked the Soviet navy from participating in combat in the Mediterranean.
Scroll to Top