Montreal Protocol

  • Also called : Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
  • It is a protocol to Vienna Convention for the Protection of Ozone Layer
  • It is an international treaty
  • It aims to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion.
  • Came into force in 1989
  • Ratifies : 197 (Universal treaty)
  • Due to its widespread adoption and implementation it has been hailed as an example of exceptional international co-operation
  • It is legally binding
  • As a result of the international agreement, the ozone hole in Antarctica is slowly recovering. Climate projections indicate that the ozone layer will return to 1980 levels between 2050 and 2070. so, it can be termed as a successful treaty.
  • What it does?
    • The treaty is structured around several groups of halogenated hydrocarbons that have been shown to play a role in ozone depletion. All of these ozone depleting substances contain either chlorine or bromine (substances containing only fluorine do not harm the ozone layer). 
  • It aims at phasing out :
    • Chlorofluorocarbons
    • Hydro chlorofluorocarbons
  • Hydro Fluorocarbons are being considered to be included under it (HFCs do not harm Ozone but are harmful as a Greenhouse gas.)



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