Migration – UPSC Prelims

  • Migration is the movement of people away from their usual place of residence, across either internal (within country) or international (across countries) borders.
  • As per the Census, India had 45.6 crore migrants in 2011 (38% of the population) compared to 31.5 crore migrants in 2001 (31% of the population).
  • Migration is a global phenomenon caused not only by economic factors but many other factors like social, political, cultural, environmental, health, education are included under the broader classification of Push and Pull factors of migration.
  • Push Factor: Push factors are those that compel a person, due to different reasons, to leave a place of origin (out-migration) and migrate to some other place.
  • Pull Factor: Pull factors indicate the factors which attract migrants (in-migration) to an area (destination).

Related Facts:
  • As of 2011, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar were the largest source of inter-state migrants while Maharashtra and Delhi were the largest receiver states. Around 83 lakh residents of Uttar Pradesh and 63 lakh residents of Bihar had moved either temporarily or permanently to other states.
  • Inter-State Migrant Workmen Act, 1979
    • The Act seeks to regulate the employment of inter-State migrants and their conditions of service.
    • It is applicable to every establishment that employs five or more migrant workmen from other States; or if it had employed five or more such workmen on any day in the preceding 12 months.
    • It is also applicable to contractors who employed a similar number of inter-State workmen.
    • It envisages a system of registration of such establishments. The principal employer is prohibited from employing inter-State workmen without a certificate of registration from the relevant authority.
    • The law also lays down that every contractor who recruits workmen from one State for deployment in another State should obtain a licence to do so.
    • But, its implementation is not  proper. So, government does not have proper data on migrants. Hence, government is proposing a new database for migrant workers.

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