Gibraltar – UPSC Prelims

  • Geography:
    • It is located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
    • Gibraltar’s territory covers 6.7 square kilometres and shares a 1.2-kilometre land border with Spain. It shares a maritime border with Morocco.
    • Gibraltar’s terrain consists of the 426-metre-high Rock of Gibraltar made of Jurassic limestone, and the narrow coastal lowland surrounding it.
    • Gibraltar is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea and has “No Contact With The Atlantic Ocean”.
  • Governance: 
    • Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory.
    • Under the Gibraltar constitution of 2006, Gibraltar is self-governing, with some responsibilities, such as defence and foreign relations, remaining with the British government.
  • History: 
    • In 1704, Anglo-Dutch forces captured Gibraltar from Spain during the War of the Spanish Succession.
    • The territory was ceded to Great Britain in perpetuity under the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713.
  • Significance: 
    • It remains strategically important, with half the world’s seaborne trade passing through the strait.
    • It is also an important Tourist and cargo ship refuelling centre.

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