Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) – UPSC Prelims

  • According to UNCLOS, Exclusive Economic Zone(EEZ) is an area of the sea in which a sovereign state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources. This includes energy production from water and wind. It stretches from the baseline to 200 nautical miles from the coast of the country.
  • Territorial waters refer to 12 Nautical Miles from the baseline. In this area, the coastal country is free to set laws, regulate the use and also use their resources.
  • India’s EEZ law:
    • India has legally defined the concept of EEZ in its “Territorial Waters, Continental Shelf, Exclusive Economic Zone and Other Maritime Zones Act, 1976”.
    • The Act also says that all foreign ships (other than warships including submarines and other underwater vehicles) shall enjoy the right of innocent passage through the territorial waters.
    • The innocent passage refers to the passing through the waters which are not harmful to the peace and security of India.

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