Convention on Biological Diversity

  • Also known as Biodiversity Convention
  • It is a multilateral treaty
  • Opened for signature on 5 June 1992 in Rio De Janeiro
  • Entered into force in 1993
  • It is legally binding
  • Convention has 3 main goals :
    1. Conservation of biological diversity
    2. Sustainable use of its components; and
    3. Fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources
  • India plays an active part in this treaty. India is a party to convention.
  • USA has signed but not ratified.
  • Secretariat: The CBD Secretariat is based in Montreal, Canada, and it operates under the United Nations Environment Programme.
  • Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety :
    • Also known as biosafety protocol
    • Adopted in 2000; Came into force in 2003
    • The Biosafety Protocol seeks to protect biological diversity from the potential risks posed by living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology.
    • Genetically Modified Organisms can be regulated under this protocol
  • Nagoya Protocol:
    • Adopted in Conference of Parties 10 (CoP10) (2010)
    • It deals with access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity
    • It is a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity.
  • Aichi Biodiversity Targets: 
    • These were included in the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity for the 2011-2020 period adopted by the 10th meeting of the Conference of the Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity. T
    • There are 20 Aichi Targets classified under 5 Strategic Goals.

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