Chandrayan II

Chandrayan II:
  • Chandrayaan-2: It is the second lunar exploration mission developed indigenously by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) after Chandrayaan-1 (2008).
  • Main Objective: To map and study the variations in lunar surface composition, as well as the location and abundance of lunar water.
  • Launch Vehicle: The mission was launched onboard India’s most powerful launcher – GSLV MK-III M1.
  • Modules: The Chandrayaan-2 mission consisted of three main modules:
    • Orbiter carried eight scientific payloads for mapping the lunar surface and studying the exosphere (outer atmosphere) of the Moon.
    • Vikram lander carried three scientific payloads to conduct surface and subsurface science experiments.
    • A Lunar Rover named Pragyan carried two payloads to enhance our understanding of the lunar surface.
  • Note: The lander and rover were destroyed during the attempted landing in September, 2019.
Accomplishments of Chandrayaan-1
  • India’s first lunar probe Chandrayaan-1 was launched by the ISRO in October 2008 and operated till August 2009.
  • The Chandrayaan-1 had confirmed the magma ocean hypothesis, which stated that the moon was once completely molten.
  • In its ten-month orbit around the moon, Chandrayaan-1 had detected titanium and had confirmed the presence of calcium.
  • Chandrayaan-1 had gathered the most accurate measurements yet of magnesium, aluminium and iron on the lunar surface.

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