Separatist-Jammu and Kashmir – UPSC GS3

Kashmir which remained highly disputed region of south Asia was always volatile since early 1930s. Earlier Muslim majority was fighting against Hindu minority rule (Maharaja Hari Singh). Later a Muslim elite emerged in the form of Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah, who in early 1950s along with Nehru eluded Kashmiri Muslims of almost Kashmir independence within Indian framework.

After defeating Pakistan in 1947 and UN mediated a ceasefire in 1948 Nehru retreated from his earlier promise of plebiscite in Kashmir so the deal b/w Sheikh and Nehru failed and Nehru even has to jail his close friend sheikh.
Since then fundamentalism against Indian state aroused in valley which caught fire in late 1980s with the help of Pakistan.
The reasons of 1990s Uprising
  1. Pak support and massive infiltration.
  2. Fundamentalism was already growing since 1960s in Kashmiri Muslims; parties like Hurriyat, JKLF, Peoples liberation front.
  3. Arm and fighters from Afghanistan
  4. US and PAK supported uprising, even then US ambassador openly supported Kashmir independence.
  5. Indian state: Indian state was also responsible, which has failed to meet aspirations of people. When we say aspirations it should not be confused with developmental aspiration (as Kashmir in 1980s was far more developed than NE or even central states like MP,UP as far as education, life style, income etc. are concerned) rather Kashmiri people wanted more autonomy (more effective implementation of art. 370). Even what i think most of the Urban educated people of Kashmir (precisely 10 districts of valley) wanted independence.
  6. Influence and motivation from USSR disintegration.
Solution to Kashmir problem: Being a nationalist, I stick to unilateral solution (means Pak shouldn’t be involved) of Kashmir. As Kashmir being integral part of India, there is no point in talking about its independence.
  1. First deal more effectively with anti-national elements. Severe Reprisal policy should be followed.
  2. Along with this go for more development.
  3. Also push for POK, a part of Kashmir we have forget (even we tried to give it to Pakistan in Shimla(1972)-LOC).
Related Questions:
  • In your opinion, what should be India’s strategic response to separatist movements, insurgency and terrorism? With emphasis on separatist movement in Jammu and Kashmir, critically analyse. (200 Words)
  • “The popular rise of the slogan for azaadi in Kashmir in the late 1990s was on the account of religious fundamentalism which was left unchallenged and an Indian state which viewed a community merely as pawns in their geostrategic game.” Critically comment. (200 Words)



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