Coastal Regulation Zone Rules, 2011

  • India has more than 8000 km coastline and more than 2 million sq km Exclusive Economic Zones including islands
  • Coastal zone is the area of interaction between land sea that is influenced by both terrestrial and marine environment.
  • Coastal zone which will be under regulation is the water and bed area between the low tide line to the territorial water limit of 12 nautical miles.
  • High Tide Line: HTL is the line on the land up to which the highest water line reaches during the spring tide.
  • HTL and low tide line shall be demarcated by central authority (Naval Hydrographic Department) or authorities authorized by GOI.
  • the rules will be applicable to 500m of the landward side of high tide line and 100m from HTL for the water bodies that are affected by tides like estuaries.
  • CRZ rules have been amended 25 times starting from CRZ notification 1991.
  • In 2006 union government tried to bring a new legislative framework “costal management zone” which environmentalists labeled as pro-industrialist.
  • Government then sets up Swaminathan committee to examine the comments on the draft proposal.
Provisions of CRZ 2011
  • Special provisions for Goa, Kerala, greater Mumbai and Critically vulnerable coastal area (CVCAs) like Sunderbans, Chilka etc.
  • 4 categories of coastal regulation zones
    • Category I-The areas that are ecologically sensitive and important such as national parks, sanctuaries, reserve forest, wild life habitats, mangroves, coral reef area close to breeding spawning ground of fish and marine life, Historical heritage area, and areas likely to be inundated
    • Category II (CRZ-II)-The areas that have already been developed up to and close to the shoreline, come under municipals.
    • Category III (CRZIII)-The area that are relatively undisturbed and those which do not belong to either category –I or ii. These will include coastal zone in the rural areas (developed and undeveloped) and also area within municipal limits or in order legally designated urban areas, which are not substantially built up.
    • Category IV (CRZIV)- Coastal stretches in the Andaman and Nicobar, Lakshadweep and small islands except those designated as CRZ-I, CRZ-II and CRZ-III.
  • No development zone definition has been changed. It is reduced from 200 meters from the high-tide line to 100 meters only. This has been done to meet increased demands of housing of fishing and other coastal communities
  • Coastal Zone Management Plan (CZMP), will be prepared with the participation of local communities.
  • Prohibits the mining of sand, rocks and other substrata material including limestone except rare minerals like, monazite, rutile, oil and natural gas.
  • Permissible activities: projects of Department of Atomic Energy; generating power by non-conventional energy sources and desalination plants according to the EIA; reconstruction, repair works of dwelling units of local communities
  • Permissible activities under these Notifications are required to obtain clearance from MoEFCC in consultation with central and state governments
  • Habitat Destruction in Coastal zones: reduction of no-development zone will further push the sensitive marine ecosystem off the brink.
  • CRZ-I criteria prevents new constructions, but there should be harsher provision for already existing illegal/harmful constructions.
  • Vulnerability of coastal areas and communities to disaster and sever weather events will further increases if constraints are laxed more and more.
  • Cumulative and uncontrolled pollution due to growing urban and rural demands
  • coastal management plan needs many and relevant stakeholders, for successful and efficient coastal management and not just result into exploitation of resources or communities
  • A knowledge base or a platform to share national and international best practices for coastal management is the need of the hour
Source :

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top