Various Ceasefire agreements between India and Pakistan – UPSC GS2

Ceasefire agreements between India and Pakistan:
  • The Karachi agreement of 1949
    • This agreement ended the first war between newly formed India and Pakistan.
    • It was the first ceasefire agreement between the two countries. It was supervised by the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan. This agreement created a boundary line in Kashmir called the Ceasefire Line or CFL.
    • Accordingly, the United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) was mandated to monitor the ceasefire along the CFL.
  • The Tashkent Agreement of 1965
    • The India-Pakistan war of 1965 also ended in a ceasefire. But, the CFL was unaltered in this agreement also. So similar to the Karachi agreement the status quo was maintained in border areas even after signing the Tashkent agreement.
  • The Shimla Agreement of 1972
    • This agreement was signed after the Bangladesh liberation war of 1971.
    • But unlike 1965, the status quo was changed under the Shimla Agreement.
    • The Suchetgarh Agreement of 1972 delineated the ‘line of control’ in Jammu and Kashmir. So the Shimla Agreement converted the ceasefire line into a Line of Control (LoC).
    • Further, under this agreement both the countries agreed to resolve the disputes bilaterally.
    • This was considered as a smart move by India because of two reasons,
      • It changed the nomenclature and the physical alignment of the India-Pakistan dividing line in Kashmir.
      • It also made the UNMOGIP presence in Kashmir irrelevant. As the UN was not even a party to the Shimla Agreement.
  • Ceasefire Agreement of 2003
    • This agreement came after four years of Kargil and two years after the Indian Parliament got attacked.
    • Pakistan PM announced the Ceasefire on LoC on November 26, 2003.
    • It is not a formalised document.

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