United States (US) President Donald Trump has announced that US will unilaterally pull out of three-decade-old Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty signed with Russia during Cold War.
Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty
- It was crucial Cold War-era treaty banning development, testing and possession of short and medium range ground-launched nuclear missiles with range of 500-5,000 km.
- The treaty was signed in December 1987 between then US President Ronald Reagan and his USSR counterpart Mikhail Gorbachev.
- The treaty banned all nuclear and conventional missiles, as well as their launchers, with ranges of 500–1,000 km or (short-range) and 1,000–5,500 km (intermediate-range).
- This treaty was central to ending arms race between two superpowers during cold war and protected America’s NATO allies in Europe from Soviet missile attacks.
- It was designed to provide measure of some strategic stability on continent of Europe.
Reasons of US withdrawal
- US President Trump has alleged that Russia has violated treaty and has been violating it for many years.
- This violation comes after Russia’s alleged development and deployment of Novator 9M729 missile (also known as SSC-8), that could strike Europe at short notice.
- Accusations of Russia violating this treaty pre-dates Trump presidency and go back to 2008 during President Obama administration.
- Under former President Barack Obama raised issue of Russia testing ground-launched cruise missile with Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2014.
- But Russia had denied allegations and raised counter-allegations of the US installing missile defence systems in Europe.
- While two countries failed to find resolution using dispute resolution mechanism in treaty, US continued to remain party to treaty under pressure from its European allies.
- The unilateral withdrawal from this treaty will allow US new nuclear weapon options in Pacific in its efforts to counter China’s growing influence.
- There are also concerns that unilateral termination of this treaty could mark beginning of new arms race between US and Russia.