Universal Immunization

Mission Indradhanush

  • Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW)
  • 25th December 2014
  • with the aim of expanding immunization coverage to all children across India by year 2020.
  • targets to immunize all children against seven vaccine preventable diseases namely Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Childhood Tuberculosis, Polio, Hepatitis B and Measles. In addition to this, vaccines for JE (Japanese Encephalitis) and Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type B) are also being provided in selected states.
  • The government has planned to conduct four special vaccination campaigns between January and June 2015.  All vaccines are already available free of cost under universal immunization programme in India. Under this mission, government plans to intensify its efforts and thus increase accessibility of these vaccines to all the children of India
201 high focus districts. Part of Universal Immunisation programme. Under NHM. Using learning from Polio campaign. Technically supported by WHO, UNICEF and Rotary International.
Over 1 million children under the age of five die in India. These deaths could be prevented by adopting a comprehensive and integrated approach to child health, that focuses on:
  • Nutrition
  • Safe water
  • Improved sanitation
  • Micronutrient supplements
  • Vaccination against preventable pneumonia and dearrhoea
For better results, need is to focus on “MOST VULNERABLE CHILDREN:
  • Poor
  • Liv in rural areas
  • Face discrimination
Mission Indradhanush doing just that:
  • Focus on 201 high priority districts
  • By 2020 immunize at least 90% of the children and women who have so far remained unvaccinated or did not receive the full recommended doses
  • Focus on Children from:
    • Tribal communities
    • Child labourers
    • Street children
    • Children living in informal settlements
India‘s Universal Immunisation or Routine Immunisation (RI) Programme is considered as a key public health programme and is much appreciated. Despite appreciation, it is said that the programme has not succeeded in urban regions due to various factors. Critically examine the challenges faced by this programme in urban regions and measures needed to address them. (200 Words)
-Universal Immunisation (UI) is most important component of child healthcare. It helps building healthy and prosperous India and this small investment improves quality of life significantly. The challenges faced by programme in urban regions are:
  1. Since 2001 to 2011 the number of census town has increased three fold. These census town despite being having many urban characters don’t receive any urban facility unless they qualify for Municipalities. NUHM fails to incorporate such towns and they are the main reason of falling UI in urban areas.
  2. Govt focuses much on rural population through largest entitlements to NRHM but in recent survey the absolute number of people added in Urban areas exceeded Rural areas. So there is mismatch in allocation of funds and generation of logistics, health care facility in urban areas by Govt.
  3. Most of the population added in Urban areas are migrants and lack awareness and education regarding the importance of UI. Food, shelter and basic healthcare consumes most of their income.
  4. Design of the National Urban Health Mission is highly selective and fails to grasp the nuances of the urban transformation.
  5. Govt has launched NUHM to address Urban health concerns and various new vaccines like Pentavalent vaccine for same.
Measures needed:
  1. Urban local body should be made the centre of planning the health care facility in NUHM.
  2. The technical problems like census definition restricting building healthcare in Census town is needed to be removed like in TN who used its statutory power to grant them village panchayat status to build health care facilities.
  3. General problems like building supply chain logistics, health care workers, social determinants and Availability & Accessibility of vaccines in PHC is needed to be enhanced.
Write a note on government of India’s recently launched ‘Mission Indradhanush’ programme. Also critically evaluate how successful have been similar programs in the past. (200 Words)
Mission Indradhanush is launched by government for children who are partially vaccinated or unvaccinated. Mission Indradhanush depicts 7 colours of the rainbow which aims to cover all those children by 2020. This will mostly focus on around 200 districts. Mission Indradhanush will provide protection against seven life-threatening diseases (diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, measles and hepatitis
In addition, vaccination against Japanese Encephalitis and Haemophilus influenza type B will be provided in selected districts of the country. Vaccination against tetanus will be provided to the pregnant women.
This mission’s main objective is to raise the immunization coverage annually and to expand its reach to cover most of the children of the country. The first phase will focus on 201 high priority districts from four states—Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh—that have the highest number of partially vaccinated or unvaccinated children. This mission will be implemented at four levels- National, state, district and block level.
Previously India has executed the successful campaigns against polio and eradicated it from the country but with that there have been failures as well due to lack of awareness and lack of will. The reach of various missions have been limited to few states and many others are also deprived of it. We have controlled measles, hepatitis b but we have not been able to reach to everyone and eradicate them. We need to focus on maximum reach so that we can build a better future for India.
As in recent past seen in Delhi, Orissa & previously in Andhra Pradesh also, many children died after vaccination of BCG; DPT and many new cases recently diagnosed of “Primary Immunodeficiency Disease”. Vaccination to child with ‘PID’ may become a threat to his/her life. So govt should first crosscheck and record a proper history before vaccination to prevent such happening again.



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