Syrian crisis

India position — Long term solution can come via Geneva Talks. The Geneva Communique issued in 2012 calls for the establishment of a transnational governing body in Syria with full executive powers that could include members of the government and opposition, and should be formed on the basis of mutual consent.

Ever since the Syrian civil war broke out in 2011, there were no meaningful international efforts to find a political solution to the crisis. Instead:
(1). regional powers turned Syria into a geopolitical battlefield. Rich Arab countries such as Saudi Arabia and Qatar supported different rebel groups against the regime because they wanted President Bashar al-Assad, an ally of Iran, to be toppled.
(2). Turkey, driven by its regional ambitions, also threw its weight behind the rebels and kept open its long border, through which fighters could cross into Syria to join the war.
(3). Western powers such as the U.S. and Britain joined the ‘regime change’ chorus and offered support to the rebels.
This drive failed to oust Mr. Assad, but has destabilised Syria, leading to the rise of terror groups such as Islamic State. It’s already too late now to find a political solution. IS controls almost half the country and it is trying to advance into areas controlled by the regime. If that happens, the humanitarian situation in Syria will worsen, triggering a further refugee exodus. To stop that from happening, regional heavyweights such as Turkey and Saudi Arabia and their backers in the West should reverse their policy towards Syria. They should rein in the rebels they bankroll and directly engage with the Assad regime to push for talks. Mr. Assad has to be blamed for the excessive use of force against his people. But he still controls the most populous areas of Syria and rules from Damascus, the seat of power. Mr. Assad clearly has to be an integral part of any future plan for Syria.
Migrants vs Refugee
Migrants –> migrate willingly for better prospects of life. Do not have legal protection
Refugee –> migrate unwillingly due to harsh realities in source nation like armed conflicts, internal turmoil and situations involving gross and systemic violation of human rights. Refugees enjoy certain protection under law, such as safety from deportation to the country here they face persecution; protection of basic human rights without racial or religious discrimination, or of national origin; access to fair and efficient asylum procedure; provision of administrative assistance
Power vacuum created in some countries of the Middle East and North Africa led to the  creation of anarchic areas which immediately started to be filled with extremists and terrorists.
Turkey border are porous through which oil is exported by IS.
Individual jihadi donations by Arab Sheikhs.



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