Swachh Bharat Mission Analysis


  • 4 years completed
  • The programme aims to eliminate open defecation by 2019, as fitting tribute to the 150th Birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi.
  • The goal also includes the elimination of open defecation, conversion of insanitary toilets to pour flush toilets, eradicating of manual scavenging and Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM).
  • It was launched four years ago on the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi. The mission was divided into two parts — urban and rural. The Swachh Bharat Mission Urban is managed by the Ministry of Urban Development, while the Swachh Bharat Mission Gramin (Rural) is led by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation.


Tangible Outcomes:

  • According to Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation, rural sanitation coverage of India has risen to 94% under Swachh Bharat Mission.
  • It has successfully built more than 8 crore toilets across rural India through mobilization of rural communities.


Prior to Swachh Bharat Mission:

  • With effect from April 1, 1999, the Government of India restructured the Comprehensive Rural Sanitation Programme and launched the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC).
  • To give a fillip to the TSC, effective June 2003, the government launched an incentive scheme in the form of an award for total sanitation coverage, maintenance of a clean environment and open defecation-free panchayat villages, blocks and districts, called Nirmal Gram Puraskar.
  • Effective April 1, 2012, the TSC was renamed to Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (SBA). On October 2, 2014 the campaign was relaunched as Swachh Bharat Abhiyan


Major Goals:

  • Construction of individual sanitary latrines for households below the poverty line with subsidy (80%) where demand exists.
  • Conversion of dry latrines into low-cost sanitary latrines.
  • Construction of exclusive village sanitary complexes for women providing facilities for hand pumping, bathing, sanitation and washing on a selective basis where there is not adequate land or space within houses and where village panchayats are willing to maintain the facilities.
  • Setting up of sanitary marts.
  • Total sanitation of villages through the construction of drains, soakage pits, solid and liquid waste disposal.
  • Intensive campaign for awareness generation and health education to create a felt need for personal, household and environmental sanitation facilities


Missing links in the scheme:

  • Attitudinal changes: People still don’t use toilets even if they are created
  • Water: Toilets are constructed but there is no water to use them
  • Disposal: How to dispose the human waste? This has not been solved.


Crucial Policy changes:

  • It is being planned to generate electricity and compost from municipal solid waste.
  • Provide Market Development Assistance on sale of city compost to farmers ( Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers)
  • Ministry of Power is in the process of amending the Electricity Act 2003 to enable mandatory purchase of power generated from municipal solid waste.


Swachh Bharat Cess:

Swachh Bharat cess of 0.5% on service tax. It will be exclusively used for Swachh Bharat initiatives


India Sanitation conference (INDOSAN)

  • INDOSAN is envisaged as an annual national event, that seeks to brings together all stakeholders working in sanitation.
  • Thus, it will be one platform for a shared vision for Government, NGOs, academicians, researchers, partner agencies and corporates.
  • It will create an opportunity for collective understanding, collective vision of the key elements of the Swachh Bharat Mission programme as sanitation is seen as a citizen movement with involvement of all sectors of the society.
  • INDOSAN will discuss on all these approaches, learnings, emerging innovations for the benefit of all.
  • Besides, each state will share their approaches most suitable to them to reach the goal of making India Open Defecation Free (ODF) by the year 2019 which marks 150th Birth Anniversary of Father of the Nation Mahatma Gandhi.



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