What is the difference between MDG and SDG?

Aims at global systemic reforms
(1). First 7 SDGs are an extension of the MDGs
(2). Goal 8,9, and 10 cover aspects such as
  • inclusiveness and jobs,
  • Infrastructure and industrialisation
  • Distribution
(3). Final set of 7 goals lay down framework for sustainability spanning
  • Urbanisation
  • Consumption and production
  • Climate change
  • Resources and environment
  • Peace and justice
  • Means of implementation and global partnership
While the question of access to technology runs across the SDGs, there is no agreement on a technology facilitation mechanism which India strongly supports.
As per UN assessment, India has not fulfilled the MDG targets of
  • Universal primary school enrolment
  • Empowering women through wage employment and political participation
  • Reducing child and maternal mortality
  • Improving sanitation to end open defection
  • Halved poverty rates from 1990 level
  • Reversed incidence of HIV/AIDS
  • Reduced malaria and TB deaths
Lags in:
  • Checking maternal mortality and child mortality
  • Failed to address prevalence of hunger
  • Child malnourishment and underweight
  • Sanitation
  • Disease burden continues to be high
(1). India don’t have financial resources to implement SDGs
(2). India don’t have adequate data to frame relevant policy
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What is MDG?
These are eight international development goals that were established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration. They were set to be achieved by 2015.
  • These are time-bound and quantified targets for addressing extreme poverty in its many dimensions-income poverty, hunger, disease, lack of adequate shelter, and exclusion-while promoting gender equality, education, and environmental sustainability.
  • They are also basic human rights-the rights of each person on the planet to health, education, shelter, and security.
  • Since the adoption, there has been significant progress in many of the goals. But the progress has not been uniform. The progress differs from country to country and even within the country.
8 MDGs
  1. Eradicate Extreme Hunger and Poverty
  2. Achieve Universal Primary Education
  3. Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women
  4. Reduce Child Mortality
  5. Improve Maternal Health
  6. Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases
  7. Ensure Environmental Sustainability
  8. Develop a Global Partnership for Development
Each goal has specific targets, and dates for achieving those targets
What are the SDGs?
  • The SDGs are a set of 17 goals and 169 targets aimed at resolving global social, economic and environmental problems.
  • These new SDGs replace the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which were adopted in 2000 and expire this year.
  • Aiming to encompass almost every aspect of human life, the main themes of the SDGs are ending poverty, tackling inequality and combating climate change.
According to the UN’s own estimates, achieving the 17 Sustainable Development Goals and 169 targets meant to transform the world will require over 250 billion dollars annually for the next 15 years.
What did the MDGs accomplish?
The United Nations says the MDGs – a set of eight goals with 21 targets – led to achievements including:
  • more than halving the number of people living in extreme poverty, to 836 million in 2015 from 1.9 billion in 1990
  • gender parity in primary schools in the majority of countries
  • reducing the rate of children dying before their fifth birthday to 43 deaths per 1,000 live births from 90
  • a fall of 45% in the maternal mortality ratio worldwide
  • some 37 million lives saved by tuberculosis prevention and treatment, over 6.2 million malaria deaths averted, and new HIV infection rates down by around 40%
  • access to improved sanitation for 2.1 billion people
Why do we need SDGs?
  • Some 795 million people around the world still go hungry and around 800 million people live in extreme poverty, with fragile and conflict-torn states experiencing the highest poverty rates
  • between 2008 and 2012, 144 million people were displaced from their homes by natural disasters, a number predicted to rise as the planet warms, bringing more extreme weather and rising seas
  • water scarcity affects 40% of the global population and is projected to increase
  • some 946 million people still practice open defecation
  • gender inequality persists in spite of more representation for women in parliaments and more girls going to school
  • 57 million children still denied right to primary education
However, please note that these SDGs are non binding.
The SDGs emphasise the importance of “responsible consumption and production,” one of the 17 goals.
Critically analyse India‘s performance on the Millennium Development Goal for gender Equity. Evaluate the initiatives taken by the government for gender equity and shortfalls therein. (200 Words)
Spanning a range of development indicators – poverty, gender, health, education and the environment – the MDGs essentially established a set of targets for the global community to achieve by 2015.
3rd MDG is to eliminate gender disparities at all levels of education and women empowerment. This is assessed to be “on track” for primary and secondary education, but “slow” for higher education.
India currently ranks 136 out of 186 countries in the UN’s Gender Inequality Index. Which translates that India is in the bottom 25% of all countries. On the women  empowerment front, women are poorly represented in the workforce, have to face deep seated prejudices and experience violence, prevalent across all sections of the society. In the parliament, women represent just above 11% of total seats, so necessarily the critical decisions on women empowerment are taken by men.
However as a signatory to the CEDAW and the CRC India has a number of progressive laws that support gender equality and ending discrimination and violence against women.
  1. Right to education and not merely a welfare programme
  2. Beti bachao, Beti padhao‖ campaign
  3. Every state has its own programme along with other central programmes for ensuring female education, health and empowerment
  4. Under the Sexual Harassment of Women at the Workplace Act, the Criminal Law (Amendment) Act of 2013 expands the scope of sexual and gender based crimes against women.
The implication for a robust national solution, then, is that region or state-specific responses that are customised to local conditions need to be put in place. The glass, half full shows a positive Indian progress and will act as a boost to further reduce gender disparities in India.
Critically evaluate India‘s progress in achieving the targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). (200 Words)
The Millennium Development Goals are a list of 8 Goals envisaged by the UN for all the countries to achieve by 2015. Now, after the expiry of this date, the Paris Summit will decide upon the Sustainable Development Goals for its future course. India‘s performance in MDGs –
Performed Well –
  • Reduced poverty and hunger by half(MDG 1),
  • Achieved control on the spread of HIV, malaria etc. (MDG 6),
  • Improved access to adequate sanitation to eliminate open defecation;
  • has increased forest cover and has halved the proportion of population without the access to cleaning drinking water, (MDG 7),
  • India‘s international relations and expanding regional cooperation is positive. (MDG 8)
Not reached the Goals in –
  • Rising inequality in poverty (MDG 1),
  • lesser women‘s literacy, (MDG 3),
  • not satisfactory enough in MMR and IMR (MDG 5)
Some of the constraints for not achieving all the MDGs and relatively low performance with respect to neighbouring countries is due to over-population, lesser economic strength, government bureaucratic apathy etc.
Nevertheless India is on the right path in reaching the other goals too, especially through its various flagship programs and an increased concentration on the UN MDGs even in the Budget, Economic Survey and Five-Year Plans and also hoping to act as early as possible on sustainable development goals post 2015.
India has met only four of ten health targets under the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), and has made next to no progress on another four, according to new data from the World Health Organisation. Elaborate and examine the causes of poor performance by India. (200 Words)
Some of the Indicators where India has met the MDG targets or progress is satisfactory are reduction in HIV incidences (57%), mortality rate for tuberculosis (50%), increase in access to safe drinking water and birth attended by skilled health personnel.
Yet it missed most of the MDGs targets such as; reduction in under-five mortality rate, infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, measles immunization coverage of 1 year children, only 22 % reduction in proportion to population in access to improved sanitation.
The main reasons for not achieving the MDGs by 2015 are:
  • Lack of quality and accountability in sterilisation surgeries
  • Staff vacancies and non-availability of Health personnel
  • Low Budgetary allocation to health sector
  • Lack of awareness among public about sanitation
  • Prevalence of open defecation
  • High levels of pollution
  • Insufficient access to PHCs and logistical difficulties in rural and tribal areas
  • Lack of demand and confidence in vaccines among public
  • Inefficient reporting and management
If you are asked to enumerate next set of Millennium Development Goals for least developed and developing countries to achieve between 2015 and 2030, what would be your priorities and goals? Also highlight, in your opinion which institutions might play crucial role in helping countries achieve these goals and why. (200 Words)
MDG has achieved very good result in last 15 years and responses it received from Developed and funding nations are good. We must remember that we already achieved great success in primary education, eliminating extreme poverty, gender equality, checking IMR and MMR, control of AIDS. But not much progress is done on environmental side. For the next MDG for 2015-2030 for LDW and developing nations some priorities:
  • Equipping young population with some minimum skill set regime and setting up vocational training centre. Reducing unemployment.
  • Cheaper medical facilities and medicines.
  • Clean and Sanitation surroundings.
  • Increasing the green cover.
  • Ground water recharging.
  • River and water body revival and cleaning.
  • Spreading the use of IT and Communication in all parts of world.
  • Reducing racism, casteism or any kind of discrimination.
As we can observe in last decadal development that, developing nations holds promising future and potential to bring positive change in world. So, organisation like ILO can monitor Skilling youth programme, AIIB+NDB can provide soft loans for small projects in LDN and Developing nations in fast way as compared to World bank, G20 can come up with mandates for every central bank of nations to focus on some priority sectors so that bank provide loans easily for those sectors. CITES, UNESCO can play role in conserving biodiversity, nation heritage, science



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