India-China Relations

Facts and Phrases:

  • Modi – China and India are “two bodies one spirit”
  • Joint Counter Terror drills – Hand in hand 2015
  • China opposed India’s bid in Seoul while other 47/48 members of NSG supported it.
  • China has become hub for circulation of fake Indian currency notes.
  • Chinese individuals supplying arms to NE insurgents.
  • India-China high level talks to combat terrorism held
  • India’s goods trade deficit with China has ballooned to $52.7 billion in 2015-16 from $1.1 billion in 2003-04
  • China has agreed to import rice (Basmati/non-basmati) from selected mills in India. Earlier it was opposed to import non-basmati rice as it feared pests getting into China along with imported rice
Despite some major shared interests and willingness to strengthen their mutual relationship, few factors are hampering the full development of ties between India and China. Critically examine what these factors are and evaluate the efforts being made to resolve them. (200 Words)
The Relations between India and China extend over centuries with trade along Silk route, Buddhism, teachings at Nalanda University etc. The Panchsheel has become a major plank of friendship and peaceful coexistence. The war of 1962 has created a shadow of mutual distrust and created a deep scar on relations.
Relationship with any country is Broadly based on 3 parameter
Government to government –
  1. India soft stance toward Tibet autonomy .
  2. China policy to encircle India through MSR,
  3. Visa issue for Arunachal Pradesh
  4. China capture large portion in land in Ladakh( Aksai Chin)
  5. Creation of Pakistan -China Economy corridor through Karakoram range has been opposed by India as it affects India’s sovereignty.
There is lot of measure taken by both government from time to time to resolve issue. Like confidence building measures, border defence cooperation agreement, Hotline between army chief of both country, more flag meetings, special representatives mechanism etc. But India and china relation is “very fragile, very easy to be damaged, and very difficult to repair.”
People to people
  1. There is also less people to people communication between India and china which hamper relationship.
However there is great potential for tourism because of Buddhism. Recently India have taken a step forward to give E-Visa to Chinese tourist. This can be proved good for economy generation in tourism sector. Proposal for establishment of cultural cities in India. Bollywood and yoga also have potential to increase the ties
Business to Business-
  1. India have Trade deficit with china.
  2. Indian IT and pharma industry facing many hurdles in its operations in china
  3. Chinese firms facing problems like visa approvals, delay in clearances for projects in India
  4. China’s import promotion zones, industrial parks in India, trade fair, liberalising visa (e-visa) can help
There is a wider scope available for mutual co-operation in a number of areas such as NDB, BRICS, AIIB, SCO etc. With the mutual co-operation, certainly the 21st century will belong to Asia.
Do you think the 21st century would belong to China just as 19th and 20th centuries belonged to Britain and America respectively? What would be India’s role in 21st century? Critically analyse. (200 Words)
The view that “21st century belongs to China” is supported by global pundits; the reasons are:
  1. The present position of Chinese economy with high growth, foreign reserve
  2. Increasing role in global economic scenario by creating new development bank and huge infrastructure creation in the form of maritime silk route and belt and road initiative to link with major economies of world,
  3. For security, China is constantly building and upgrading its weapon stock. Latest inclusion of intercontinental ballistic missile which can reach out to US can be helpful as major deterrence
  4. They are ensuring multiple trading routes so that in case of emergency, blockade of any one route doesn’t hamper their trade
But there are hurdles. Few of them are:
  1. China has border problems many of its neighbours like India, Japan, Philippines, Vietnam. This can lead to creation of anti-Chinese block which can hamper Chinese endeavour.
  2. Major investor in china is US while majority of debt to US is provided by Chinese. Such situation cannot continue for ever and can lead to turmoil during economic crisis situations.
  3. Engagement with rogue nations: such as north Korea, Pakistan & Iran makes world wary of Chinese intentions.
  4. Growth of many other nations like india, brazil, SE aisa etc
India can play a major role in 21st century:
  1. India can play big role in maritime security
  2. India can become manufacturing hub of world given that its population is young and 2nd Largest in world.
  3. India can assert spirituality in world order for world peace given its secular and multi culture nature. re-stressing on cultural ties & soft power such as International Yoga day, Nalanda university, Gujral doctrine.
  4. Greater role in regional security and better coordination at SAARC level
  5. She can be one of the poles in emerging multi-polar world and can work for peace in the world.
  6. India can play major role in climate change talks, UNSC reforms etc
Critically analyse India’s relationship with China. (200 Words)
China being biggest Indian neighbour and both are emerging countries. They have areas of overlapping interest and differences. Relation between 2 can be studied on following broad areas:
  1. Security: There is a great suspicion between two countries of each other’s activities. Chinese projects of Karakoram highway project, South China Sea, Silk Road project, Pearl of string theory and border activities of Chumar have generated huge suspicion in India. The closeness of India to USA, Japan, and Vietnam etc. generates fear among China of India becoming part of its entrapment. The lack of cooperation and confidence building measures are the reason behind it. Refuge given by Indian Govt to Dalai Lama and Tibetan Govt in exile never goes down well with Chinese Govt and is seen as potential interference in its internal affairs.
  2. Border Dispute: Aksai Chin, Arunachal Pradesh region are the main area of dispute between two countries. 1962 war in which India lost Aksai Chin region has created great doubts about Chinese intentions on border disputes. China claim AP to be part of Tibet. Both countries failed to solve this dispute despite formation of committee comprising special representatives. China has also been issuing stapled visas to people of Arunachal Pradesh.
  3. Trade: Huge trade deficit, market restrictions imposed by China is restricting realisation of trade potential. Trade deficit is $48 bn in china’s favour. India is exporting only cotton, iron ore etc. while china exports to India high-tech goods. Also, India’s market in china for IT and pharma is very small.
  4. People-to-people. China wants e-visa facility to be extended to it so that there is increased flow of tourists and businessmen from either country. Recent Indian thrust on soft power diplomacy by using Buddhist linkages to build strong bonds is a welcome move
  5. International Platform: Both countries lead Developing, emerging countries on various platform e.g. Climate change, WTO, UN etc. So they have quite common interests which bring them closer.
The huge mistrust between the two countries needed to be removed and the political class has the main responsibility. People to people contact needs to be relaxed and the historical cultural links needed to be further strengthened. 21st Century belongs to Asia if these countries work in coherence with each other rather than in hostile mistrust.



Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top