Geopolitics of Eurasia – UPSC GS2

Factors that impact Geopolitics of Eurasia:
  • The internal political evolution of Eurasian state: 
    • Post-Communist states have not settled on a sustainable political path.
    • In Central Europe and the Baltic States, the transition to liberal democracy appeared to be quick.
    • While many other former Soviet republics drifted into the rule of strong men.
    • Both models are under stress as democratic backsliding in Hungary and Poland challenges the norms of the European Union.
  • The weaknesses of economic globalisation: 
    • Despite being resource-rich and embracing economic globalisation, the leaders of Central Asian republics like Kazakhstan have ensured an inequitable society.
  • The limitations of regional institutions: 
    • The hope that regional institutes contributing to the stability of post-communist states have not been met.
    • Even after joining the EU, the eastern and western halves of Europe are vastly different.
    • Several issues related to the Rule of Law, migration, energy and geopolitics act as dividing factors.
    • There is also resentment in the eastern half about the domination of the western half on EU policymaking.
    • Russia has launched the Eurasian Economic Union and the Collective Security Treaty Organisation to re-establish its primacy in Eurasia, but has not been successful yet. Russia joined SCO with China, to bring stability in the Central Asian region.
  • The constraints on powers to shape the post-Russian space: 
    • To lessen their dependency on Russia, many former members of the Soviet Union are engaging with all major powers to strengthen their strategic autonomy, which Nazarbayev called “multi-vector diplomacy”. But still, countries like Kazakhstan are dependent on Russia, when any crisis arises.
    • In Ukraine Conflict, Russia prefers to negotiate with the USA rather than the EU.
    • In Kazakhstan, Russia has shown it remains the main security provider despite the considerable economic salience of China.
    • Hence, major economic power such as the EU and China have been unable to shape the political and security dynamic in Eurasia.

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