Education Reforms


  • The Education Policy of 1968, based on the recommendations of the Kothari commission (1964-66), decided that Indian public expenditure on education must be 6% of gross domestic product (GDP).
  • This goal was reaffirmed in the New Education Policy of 1986 and its revision in 1992, with a suggestion that every attempt must be made to go beyond 6%.
  • India has never reached even near this goal.
  • The closest it has come was in 2001, when this number hit 4.4%.
Brain Trap:
  • Children’s Inquisitiveness is snubbed from childhood both at home and at school (Obedience is valued more than the child’s inquisitiveness)
  • Fact based exams – promotes rote learning
  • High competition for admissions (e.g. DU) – students, teachers, parents driven to score higher marks than actual learning
  • Teachers play important role: investment should be on teacher and teacher training – to acknowledge the importance of creativity and nurture it
  • Inquisitiveness should be encouraged and innovations should be rewarded
Recently a review committee constituted by the government in 2014 suggested that there is a need for restructuring and reforming the University Grants Commission (UGC). In your opinion, what reforms does UGC require to ensure quality higher education in India? In the light of the committee’s recommendations, critically analyse. (200 Words)
Hari Gautam committee was set up with a view to bring reforms in the Education Sector. Following are some of the recommendations of the Committee:
  1. Committee has recommended to scrap all 14 high education regulators in the country including UGC and to set up only 1 regulator that is National High Education Authority.
  2. It is aimed at bringing discipline and to ensure uniformity on the lines of Corporate Sector since UGC has not been able to deal with complexities.
  3. It also recommends to ensure market linkages so that the demographic dividend can be achieved.
However, the recommendations too are not without flaws, which are:
  1. Recommendations are to ensure corporatisation of Education which leaves very less space for Innovation and Critical thinking
  2. Committee has recommended to focus on English Language to harness demographic dividend, however in reality, very few people understand and uses the language across the country.
  3. It promotes the monotonous pattern of Education.
In order to ensure quality in education, UGC should focus on harnessing Critical Consciousness among the students rather than giving them monotonic education.



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