Dynamics of Foreign Policy

Compare and contrast challenges faced and the way they were managed by India on foreign policy front during the post – Cold War era and post- 2008 global economic crisis. (200 Words)

End of cold war with soviet union disintegration in 1991 created new realties and new challenges for India:
  1. A unipolar world– weakening relevance of NAM
  2. Fall of soviet union– needed closer ties with US, the sole superpower
  3. Era of liberalization– new vigor of economic diplomacy searching for new partners
  4. Nuclear test of 1998– sanctions by international community
  5. Increasing dominance of the west in international institutions like WTO, IMF, WB
  6. Terrorism having its origin in cold war raising its head
How they were tackled:
  • Tie with US strengthened and taken to strategic level
  • Indo-US civil nuclear deal and resulting support by US and her allies eased sanction and persuaded the world for India specific nuclear policy
  • Look east policy to strengthen ties with economically crucial south-east Asia
  • Trade ties with china deepened
  • Strong voice against terrorism and canvassing for global cooperation
  1. Slowdown of the west affecting India‘s economy – against need for alternative and new economic partners
  2. Perceived weakening of US- growing assertion of Russia and china
  3. Emergence of some states in EU like Germany
  4. Chinese assertion in Indian Ocean region
How it is being managed:
  • More south cooperation via BRICS, more collaboration among developing nations
  • Not taking sides in the geopolitical posturing of Russia and china
  • Act east policy to further deepen ties with the region
  • Sagar mala yatra by PM and reviving Indian Ocean rim association
An energetic and vigorous foreign policy with long-term policy protecting India‘s strategic and economic interest while treating others on the basis of equality and partnership will be the key.



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