Changing US-China relations and its impact on India – UPSC GS2

Recent initiatives by US and China to mitigate tensions:
  • Inauguration of high-level engagement on key bilateral and global issues.
  • Agreed to engage in structured talks on their respective nuclear stockpiles to ensure “nuclear stability”. This is due to rapid and significant advances in the Chinese nuclear stockpile.
  • US has rolled back to its earlier position in Taiwan and recognised the One China Policy.
  • Both Nations announced a “US-China Joint Glasgow Declaration on Enhancing Climate Change” on the eve of the Glasgow summit. The declaration will:
    • Enhance the bilateral programme of cooperation on Climate Change.
    • A substantial initiative on reducing methane emissions.
    • Expanding forestry.
    • “Phasing down” of coal-based power by China
    • Achieve a carbon-free electricity sector by 2035 in the US.
What are the reasons behind the US’s policy shift?
  • Pressure from American investors.
  • Growth of Chinese nuclear stockpile.
  • Hypersonic glide weapon of China that is capable of penetrating anti-ballistic missile systems deployed by the US.
What are the challenges in China-US relations?
  • Issue of the trade war.
  • US sanctions on Chinese companies on National Security ground.
  • US domestic economic policy which has global repercussions.
Impact on India:
  • The growth of the Chinese nuclear stockpile will have implications for the credibility of India’s own limited nuclear deterrent.
  • Affect India’s geopolitical calculations, and India need to reassess the value of partnership with the US and platforms like the Quad.