- Nirbhaya Fund is lying unused
- Women permanent commission in armed forces/navy/air force and court decision in this favour.
- All women crewed Indian navy ship to circumnavigate world in 2017
- Government planning to open NDA and Sainik schools for women
Women empowerment is not possible without involving them in decision-making at all levels. Suggest measures to achieve the same. (200 Words)
Ans: The position & status of women was very low in 18 and 19th centuries. It has started rising from the 20th century. Women are entering in almost every field after the post 1991 period. they constitute half of world‘s population but they still remain world‘s most underutilized resources. we need to involve them in decision making at all levels for their empowerment. It should start from the family, individual level.
- Patriarchal nature of men should be changed by seeing women as objects. Women should be given opportunities to express her views, decisions. education system in India should be revived by putting pictures of women only as teachers, nurse in text books. This is entering into kids mind that women can play only these roles.
- Only few women are entering into decision making process, that alone will not lead to empowerment. Though Govt has taken steps through 73rd &74th amendment to ensure 1/3rd participation of women at the grass-root levels,33% reservations should be given to women to increase their participation in decision making.
- Schemes for encouraging entrepreneurship skills should be introduced. Bharatiya Mahila bank is a welcoming step by the govt.
- Poor literacy rates, high mortality rates, numerous instances of discrimination in workplace are faced by women. Acts such as Domestic Violence Act, Sharda Act and Compulsory Registration of Marriage Act can be strengthened along with provisions for a uniform Code bill.
- Most women in India are agricultural labours. they are not given equal wages. We have article 14 in our constitution, but this is the status of women in rural India. Govt should make policies to ensure equal wages to women.
- Women led SHGs and co-operatives like SEWA should be promoted.
- Strict implementation of Justice Verma Committee recommendations to prevent violence against women.
- Make in India should use women to show their potentials.
UN & Govt has taken many steps like “heforshe” campaign, nirbhaya fund, Beti
Bachao, Beti Padhao etc the above measures should be taken into account to increase their participation in the decision making process of our country.
It is said that the future of India depends on the overall development and empowerment of its half a billion women population. Critically discuss the progress made so far by women in India during last two decades. (200 Words)
Development cannot take place if it neglects the role of women and more so in India which has half a billion women. The 12th FYP recognises the need for inclusive and sustainable growth. This can be achieved only if women progress equally. Since the economic reforms women have played a very significant role in the growth of the country. They have reached the peak of almost every sector.
- Feminisation of agriculture has made women lead farmers of the country. They have inculcated best practices and utilised latest technologies in improving agriculture
- In the industries, head of major MNCs are now women. Indra Nooyi heads Pepsi co. The number of women working in manufacturing has also increased. Their wages are now equal to men.
- In the services sector, women head leading banks of India such as SBI, ICICI. Knowledge economy is a levelling field and India’s growth in this sector has given women huge number of opportunities.
- In the scientific field, we have an increase in women’s participation. The mars mission of ISRO had several women.
- Politically, we had first women president, speaker of the Lok Sabha. Their representation in central and state legislatures is increasing and more importantly their influence. 33 % reservation for women in PRIs has also increased their voice in these democratic institutions.
- Sports – Sania mirza, Saina Nehwal, Mary Kom etc.
- Census-2011 has revealed that women’s literacy levels have improved significantly in both rural & urban India; pace of improvement has been higher than for men.
- Performance of women candidates in competitive exams, in higher education is better off vis-a-vis men candidates; revealed every year through media reports.
However, there is still huge potential for progress. Education of girl child is still neglected, we have cases of female foeticide, women are discouraged from entering workplace, sexual harassment of women is a concern. These issues need to be addressed for realising the full potential of Indian women
“The Shah Bano case was a milestone in the Muslim women’s search for justice and the beginning of the political battle over personal law.” Critically comment. (200 Words)
The Shah Bano Begum case upheld a muslim woman’s unrestricted right to maintenance under provisions of the CrPC on par with women belonging to other religions. Not only did the SC go against the conventionally accepted Sharia Law [Civil Law for Muslim], it also observed that the Government must move towards a Uniform Civil Code.
Achievements of the Shah Bano Case:
- Muslim Woman are not as educated and self-dependent like the rest of the Woman. Education is denied to them and they are not allowed to work either, hence post-divorce the need for maintenance only becomes greater in them. The judgement reiterated it.
- The judgment definitely mainstreamed the discourse on the pitiful condition of Indian women.
- While, the judgement was concerned with the rights of Muslim women in particular, it strengthen women’s movements of all hues fighting for justice and equality.
- It triggered introspection in many other personal laws.
- Case highlighted the need for the enactment of the Uniform Civil Code, as propounded under A. 44 of the Constitution.
However, in-spite of its progressive tone and best intent, it began a political battle over personal law. Under pressure from Muslim leaders, government enacted the retrograde
Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act, 1986.
Diluting the Supreme Court judgment, the act allowed maintenance to a divorced woman only during the period of iddat, or till 90 days after the divorce, according to the provisions of Islamic law. This was seen as a means of appeasement and vote bank politics by section among the Hindus. As a consequence, the debate over UCC has become divisive and communally charged.
However, hope has been kept alive by SC with its progressive judgments in cases of Daniel Latifi in 2001, Iqbal Bano in 2007, Shabana Bano in 2009 and the latest one of
Shamina Farooqui in 2015 where it upheld the shah bano judgement. Govt has to show greater political will to enable consensus building on Universal civil code to enable taking into account of diverse views on an emotionally charged issue.