Provisions for Women – UPSC GS1

Various Safeguards for Women in India:
  • Constitutional Safeguards:
    • Fundamental Rights: It guarantees all Indians the right to equality (Article 14), no discrimination by the State on the basis of gender (Article 15(1)) and special provisions to be made by the State in favour of women (Article 15(3)).
    • Fundamental Duties: The Constitution imposes a fundamental duty on every citizen through Articles 51 (A)(e) to renounce practices derogatory to dignity of women.
  • Legislative Framework:
    • Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005: It provides victims of domestic violence with a means for practical remedy through prosecution.
    • Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961: It prohibits the request, payment or acceptance of a dowry.
    • Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition, and Redressal) Act, 2013: This legislative act seeks to protect women from sexual harassment at their place of work.
  • Related Schemes: Mahila e-haat, Women Technology Park, Gender Advancement for Transforming Institutions (GATI), etc.
World Conferences for Women:
  • The UN has organised 4 world conferences on women. These took place in:
    • Mexico City, 1975
    • Copenhagen, 1980
    • Nairobi, 1985
    • Beijing, 1995
  • The 4th World Conference on Women (WCW), held in Beijing, was one of the largest ever gatherings of the UNs, and a critical turning point in the world’s focus on gender equality and the empowerment of women.
  • The Beijing Declaration is an agenda for women’s empowerment and considered the key global policy document on gender equality.
  • It sets strategic objectives and actions for the advancement of women and the achievement of gender equality in 12 critical areas of concern like women and health, women in power and decision-making, the girl-child, women and the environment.
  • Recently, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has proposed a Temporary Basic Income (TBI) for poor women in developing countries to help them cope with the effects of the coronavirus pandemic and alleviate the economic pressures they face every day.
Previous Year Questions:
Q 1.) ‘Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action’, often seen in the news, is (2015)
(a) a strategy to tackle the regional terrorism, an outcome of a meeting of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.
(b) a plan of action for sustainable economic growth in the Asia-Pacific Region, an outcome of the deliberations of the Asia-Pacific Economic Forum.
(c) an agenda for women’s empowerment, an outcome of a World Conference convened by the United Nations.
(d) a strategy to combat wildlife trafficking, a declaration of the East Asia Summit.
Ans: (c)
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