Indian Exclusion Report 2016

2016 report has focused on access of 4 public goods:

  • Pensions for the elderly
  • Digital access
  • Agricultural land
  • Legal justice for undertrial


  • Landholding pattern
    • Large landowners belong to the upper castes
    • Cultivators to the middle castes
    • Agricultural workers to Dalits and Adivasis
    • Highest landlessness was among Dalits (~57%)
    • Around 40% of all displaced by developmental activity were Adivasis
    • Dalits own poor quality land only
    • Land reform efforts have not benefited Dalits, women or Muslims significantly
    • Land allotments to SC/ST households were often only on paper, as allottees were forcefully evicted or not allowed to take possession
  • Digital access
    • Poverty and geographic location were the two major barriers to digital access, with urban locations enjoying better Internet penetration rates
    • Government Efforts are facing implementation problems like poor infrastructure, a lack of adequate institutional frameworks, low literacy in the targeted areas, and poor cooperation from government


The groups most severely and consistently excluded from provisioning tend to the same historically disadvantaged groups: Dalits, Adivasis, Muslims, and persons with disabilities and age-related vulnerabilities

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