Critically analyse the impact of globalisation on Indian agriculture. (200 Words)
Positives of globalisation on agriculture:
- New technology for seed development- Green Revolution, GM crops
- New technology for water conservation, irrigation development- Iran , Israel techniques, Drip irrigation
- Export promotion due to new markets
- New technologies like e-commerce for product promotion e.g.- tea brands, coffee, tobacco
- New avenues like Multi-brand Retail players- Walmart, Carlfour etc.
- Backward industries such as tractor, fertiliser, farm machines investment e.g. John deer
- Food processing industries, Mega food parks with help of foreign technology and investment
- Agriculture infrastructure- warehouses etc. also developed
- Geographical indexing have improved demand for such commodities in international markets and this have positive effect on farmers income.
- Research collaboration with foreign countries and institutions has increased.
- Globalisation has encouraged the concrete of corporate and contract farming which have helped farmers.
- Proliferation of food processing industries has improved farmers returns.
Negatives of globalisation of agriculture:
- Competition from global brands due to opening of sector
- Forum like WTO pressurizing to tone down security net for agriculture sector
- Input cost for agriculture is also effected by global events. Tension in Eurasian region can cause fluctuation in price of P fertilizers.
- Prices in global markets able to impact local prices e.g.- sugar industry
- GM crops issues
- Patenting of local products by multinational brands e.g.- Jamun, Neem, Turmeric
- Cash crop demand increase farmer focus on these crops. But demand and price of these crops may fluctuate. This has major implication when farmer deviate from food crops. This have issues for countries food security.
- More importantly, Globalisation has shifted the public discourse from agriculture to industry. Globalisation has indirectly led to industrial growth. This needs land and resultantly increase in displacement of farmers.