Deforestation – UPSC GS1

Facts:
  • India has set target to restore 50 lakh hectare of its degraded land by 2030.
  • 29% land of India’s total geographical area is degraded which has to be restored.
Importance of Forest
  • Forests act as Carbon sink by absorbing about 30% of man-made GHG emissions on other hand ocean soaks another 23%. So, losing vast tracts of tropical forest not only releases carbon into atmosphere, it also reduces size of carbon sink. Therefore, it is vital to protect what we still have.
  • Because of deforestation, indigenous communities are most vulnerable to losing their homes and livelihoods, aggravates climate change (as absorb 1/3rd of planets greenhouse gas emissions produced globally), biodiversity loss.
World Resources Institute Report:
  • As per recently published US-based World Resources Institute (WRI) report, world lost 12 million hectares (30 million acres) of tropical tree cover in 2018.
  • It is fourth largest annual decline since global satellite data become available in 2001.
  • According to report, with such decline world’s forests entered in ‘emergency room’ implying that planet’s health is at stake and mere band-aid response will not help.
  • Study showed new deforestation hotspots in Africa, like Ghana and Ivory Coast, the increase in tree loss was due to illegal mining, small-scale forest clearing and expansion of cocoa farms.
Critically discuss the effects of deforestation on Indian economy. (200 Words)
Recent study which observed that Deforestation in Northern mid attitudes has caused a decreased of 1/5th of Monsoon in India ,though raised moderately rain in Southern Hemisphere and Australia and South Africa.
It is evident that Deforestation has the impact on the Indian economy , which still
largely depend on the Agriculture and Monsoon . Some of effects of Deforestation are:
  • Greater Pollution or carbon emission with no carbon capture increased the Health burden of the country
  • Greater amount of funds will be diverted for the climate change , resilient crops which otherwise could have helped in raising the incomes
  • Monsoon plays key role in Monetary policy of RBI thus tight and dear economy may harm the market sentiments Like after ELNINO ,ENSO
  • Deforestation caused increased land pressure as more tribal becomes share croppers thus increasing of lower strata in the economy
  • Deforestation and Encroachment to natural resources like Wetlands etc. also causes disasters like Deluge in Uttarakhand etc.
  • Forest, tress preserve and withhold the nutrients in the soil. Absence causes greater use of fertiliser, which is generally subsidised in India ~ 70k cr subsidy
  • Tourism and Aviation are also affected as, Eco tourism is affected , also Leads to job loss unemployment etc. As cited in recent AAI report
  • It also causes Change in rainfall, crop failure , pushing farmer s to migrate already stressed overburdened cities , thereby causing slums , poor hygiene crime, prostitution ,social inequalities etc.
In totality, depleting the Nature’s wealth also decreases the health of its Human and Economy.