Birth Control Measures – UPSC GS1

According to 11th report of Common Review Mission of National Health Mission (NHM), women bear uneven burden in family planning as they account for more than 93% of sterilisations in the country.
Why male sterilization is better?
Male Sterilization is cheaper and less risky as compared to female sterilization. Despite this, female sterilization contributes to more than 95% of all sterilizations in India.
Why government is pushing for male sterilization?
  • To encourage men to bear burden on family planning
  • To improve skewed family-planning towards female. Male sterilization rates have been very low as compared to women.
  • Male sterilization is cheap and less risky procedure as compared to women’s, thus, minimizes sterilization-related deaths. E.g. Chhattisgarh case.
  • There are no side effects and lesser chances of post operation complications like bladder problems.
What are some of the measures to ensure Birth Control in long term?
  • Birth-control related education
  • Awareness campaigns such as spacing of three years between children, using contraceptive pills, Copper-T, condoms etc. need to be encouraged
  • Providing free and affordable contraceptive pills, condoms etc. to the families. especially in rural areas and to the poor families in urban areas by the govts. and NGOs.
  • Reduction in IMR, CMR, will lead to reduction in TFR hence need for improved affordable health care.
  • There is a direct link between high TFR and poverty( Malthus Principle). Thus effective poverty alleviation programmes needed to reduce TFR in long term
What are the reasons for low male sterilisation?
  • The vasectomy or male sterilisation services still remain inadequately available across the country. Despite efforts to make male sterilisation more acceptable, it was found that non-scalpel vasectomy services are available in very few facilities and uptake is negligible in all states.
  • Reluctance of Indian men to undergo vasectomy or sterilisation stems from history, social taboo and logistical limitations.
  • Forced sterilisations during emergency have given this procedure of family planning bad name.
  • Moreover, misinformation about it robbing men of their strength has made it social taboo and fact that there are no male health workers means these impressions cannot be corrected.
  • Due to male dominate nature of India society, it is also difficult for ASHA worker in village to talk to men about sterilisation. - Birth Control Measures

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