American Revolution – UPSC GS1

  • Greatest movement in human history for freedom and equality
  • Colonies were exploited by Britain
  • 13 colonies came together against mercantilism
  • Led to declaration of independence and birth of USA
  • Modern values like Constitution, Democracy, Republic, Bill of Rights, Equality etc.
  • Economy : Mercantilism
    Navigation law 1651: American ships compulsory sail towards Britain portsEXIM policy: Britain complete monopoly over EXIM of certain products like potato, tobacco, sugarcane etc.
  • Role of intellectual class:
    Thomas Paine: Common sense (book) – drain of wealth, American independenceBenjamin Franklin: ideological centres (Philosophical society of America)Henry Patrick: Give me death or independenceTaught masses -> emancipation of society
  • Social Structure of America – Common bond of unity among 13 colonies was exploitation from Britain
  • 7 years wars between England and France : 1756-1763 over possession of Canada. American get exposed to trading outside, understood their importance, France also left Canada, French aggression over
Important Events
  • Grenville Policy : Imposed old restrictions like navigational laws, new taxes – Sons of liberty and daughters of liberty
  • Ruckingham Declaration (Britain can still impose taxes) and Townshed Plan 1767 : Increased the duty on certain products like glass, cotton, potato, tobacco – Boston massacre under Samuel Adams
  • Lord North’s Tea Policy: Increased duty on Tea trade, Boston Tea Party 1773 ( Throwing away of Tea crates. Wanted “No taxation without representation)
  • First Philadelphia Convention 1774
    Britain should abolish all restriction on American trade and commerceRepresentation in legislation ( No taxation without representation)
  • King George III considered a revolt so he declared military action
  • This was beginning of American War of Independence
  • This led to Second Philadelphia Convention : Declaration of American Independence on 4th July, 1775
    Declaration of Thomas Jefferson: Humanism and Welfare are parameters of government13colonies accepted common agenda of unity : became USA
  • American won war of independence under George Washington and by Treaty of Paris in 1783, Britain left its right on American colonies
    Led to 3rd PD : Preparation of Consultation for USA
  • Inspiration to other colonies : France , India etc.
  • Republican form of government: Solution for despotic Monarchy
  • Manmade constitution: Basic features wereFederalism, Separation of PowerBill of Rights, Powerful Centre
  • Led to French Revolution: Under Lafayette, French got involved in this war, led to financial bankruptcy of France

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