S&T Miscellaneous for Prelims

Radioactivity – UPSC Prelims

Radioactivity: Radioactivity is the phenomenon of spontaneous emission of particles or waves from the unstable nuclei of some elements. There are three types of radioactive emissions: Alpha, Beta and Gamma. Alpha particles are positively charged He (Helium) atoms, beta particles are negatively charged electrons and gamma rays are neutral electromagnetic radiations. Radioactive elements are naturally found in the earth’s crust. Uranium, thorium and …

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Biological Weapons – UPSC Prelims

What is a Biological Weapon? Biological weapons use microbiological agents (such as bacteria, viruses or fungi) or toxins to intentionally cause death or harm to humans, animals, or plants. Related Initiatives: The 1925 Geneva Protocol banned the use of biological weapons in war. India ratified the Geneva Convention in 1950. Subsequently, the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC), which entered into …

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Radio Waves and Radio Telescopes – UPSC Prelims

Radio Waves and Radio Telescopes: Radio waves have the longest wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum. They range from the length of a football to larger than our planet. Heinrich Hertz proved the existence of radio waves in the late 1880s. Radio telescopes collect weak radio light waves, bring it to a focus, amplify it and make it …

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Plasma – UPSC Prelims

What is Plasma? Plasma is a hot, charged gas made of positive ions and free-moving electrons that has unique properties distinct from solids, liquids and gases. At high temperatures, electrons are ripped from atom’s nuclei and become a plasma or an ionised state of matter. Plasma is also known as the fourth state of matter.

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) – UPSC Prelims

Radio Frequency Identification: RFID is a type of passive wireless technology that allows for tracking or matching of an item or individual. The system has two basic parts: Tags Readers. The reader gives off radio waves and gets signals back from the RFID tag, while the tag uses radio waves to communicate its identity and other information. A tag can be …

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Technical Textiles – UPSC Prelims

Technical Textiles: Technical textiles are textiles materials and products manufactured primarily for technical performance and functional properties rather than aesthetic characteristics. Technical Textiles products are divided into 12 broad categories (Agrotech, Buildtech, Clothtech, Geotech, Hometech, Indutech, Mobiltech, Meditech, Protech, Sportstech, Oekotech, Packtech) depending upon their application areas. India shares nearly 6% of the world market …

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