Geography Basics for Prelims

Anthropocene Era – UPSC Prelims

Anthropocene is an unofficial unit of geologic time. It describes the most recent period in Earth’s history when the human activity started to have a significant impact on the planet’s climate and ecosystems.  In 2010, biologist Eugene Stormer and chemist Paul Crutzen coined the term ‘Anthropocene’. Later the word gained immense popularity. The current epoch …

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Island Arcs – UPSC Prelims

They are long, curved chains of oceanic islands associated with intense volcanic and seismic activity and orogenic (mountain-building) processes. An island arc typically has a land mass or a partially enclosed, unusually shallow sea on its concave side. Along the convex side there almost invariably exists a long, narrow deep-sea trench. The greatest ocean depths are found in these depressions of the …

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Polymetallic Nodules

Polymetallic Nodules: Polymetallic nodules (PMN) are also known as manganese nodules. They are potato-shaped, largely porous nodules found in abundance carpeting the sea floor in the deep sea of the world oceans. Besides manganese and iron, they contain nickel, copper, cobalt, lead, molybdenum, cadmium, vanadium, titanium. Of these metals nickel, cobalt and copper are considered …

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