- Index released by NITI Aayog.
- According to the SDG Index, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu have been ranked on top 3 positions and are on track to achieve the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG).
- Index aims to promote healthy competition among States by evaluating their progress in social, economic and environmental terms that will help India in achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) by 2030.
- Based on the performance of the States and UTs across 13 of the 17 identified SDGs, a score ranging between 0 and 100 has been assigned to each of them in the index.
- Chandigarh has been declared as the front runner in the Index with a score of 68 among the UTS.
- Assam, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh are at the bottom of the rankings in the NITI Aayog’s Sustainable Development Goals Index .
Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Thus, it takes into account both the present and future generations without over-exploitation of natural resources and environmental degradation.
Features of Sustainable Development:
- Sustained Rise in Real per Capita Income : There should be a sustained rise in real per capita income and economic welfare on long-term basis.
- Rational Use of Natural Resources : Sustainable development simply means that natural resources should be rationally used in a manner such that they are not overexploited.
- Preserving the natural resources for future generations : Sustainable development aims at making use of natural resources and environment for raising the existing standard of living in such a way as not to reduce ability of the future generations to meet their own needs.
Sustainable Development Goals
- The documentary screened at the Rio+20 conference – “Future We Want” presented the idea of post 2015 development agenda.
- Sustainable development Goals (SDGs) is an intergovernmental agreement formulated to act as post 2015 Development agenda, its predecessor being Millennium Development Goals.
- It is a group of 17 goals with 169 targets and 304 indicators, as proposed by the United Nation General Assembly’s Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals to be achieved by 2030.
- Post negotiations, agenda titled “Transforming Our World: the 2030 agenda for Sustainable Development” was adopted at the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit.
- SDGs is the outcome of Rio+20 conference (2012) held in Rio De Janerio and is a non-binding document.
17 Sustainable Development Goals
- SDG 1: No Poverty
- SDG 2: Zero Hunger
- SDG 3: Good Health and Well-being
- SDG 4: Quality Education
- SDG 5: Gender Equality
- SDG 6: Clean Water and Sanitation
- SDG 7: Affordable and clean energy
- SDG 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth
- SDG 9: Industry, innovation and infrastructure
- SDG 10: Reduced inequalities
- SDG 11: Sustainable cities and communities
- SDG 12: Responsible production and Consumption
- SDG 13: Climate actions
- SDG 14: Conserve life below water
- SDG 15: Protect the life on land
- SDG 16: Peace, justice and strong institutions
- SDG 17: Partnerships for the goals
NITI Aayog and United Nations in India signed Sustainable Development Framework for 2018-2022.
- The agreement is a reflection of commitment and efforts made by India towards attaining Sustainable Development Goals.
- UNSDF 2018-2022 outlines development cooperation strategy between Union Government and United Nations Country Team in India in support of achievement of India’s key national development priorities and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
- It was framed following highly participative process, in consultation with government entities, civil society representatives, academia, and private sector.
- Focus areas under it include poverty and urbanization, health, water, and sanitation, education, climate change, nutrition and food security, clean energy, and disaster resilience; skilling, entrepreneurship, job creation, gender equality and youth development. (Make a Ray Diagram of these)
- Across these outcome areas, UN will support Union Government in south-south cooperation in partnership with Ministry of External Affairs (MEA).
- The total planned budget outlay for implementation of UNSDF is approximately Rs. 11000 crore, of which 47% is planned to be mobilized through course of implementation from multiple sources, including private sector and government.
- The programmatic work outlined in UNSDF targets seven low-income states viz. Bihar, Jharkhand, MP, Odisha, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh and UP along with North-East region and aspirational districts identified by the NITI Aayog.
- It will work on improving lives of most marginalized, poor, and vulnerable communities and people in the country, especially women and girls.
- UNSDF also includes set of UN flagship programs that are aligned with major government schemes.
- These flagship programs will be scalable innovative, multi-sectoral solutions to some of most pressing development challenges that India faces and also serve as catalysts for increased investment of development finance.
- UNSDF programmes range from affordable housing for poor to increasing access to clean energy in rural off-grid areas, protecting all children from vaccine-preventable diseases, providing quality education for all children and skilling for young people, especially young girls and ending stunting to improving child sex ratio.
- MYC is a global and inclusive network of cities and countries as well as umbrella brand of European development cooperation particularly related to field of sustainable urban transport.
- It aims at assisting beneficiary partners – i.e. national and local governments in their preparation of National Urban Mobility Policies and Investment Programs (NUMPs) and Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMPs).
- It facilitates establishment of framework conditions for effective investment and sustainable development of urban transport infrastructure and services as well as regulatory soft measures.
- MYC is part of international initiative which is supported by French and German Governments.
- It was launched at 21st Conference of Parties (COP21) meeting in December, 2015.
These reports were prepared by five working groups which were set up by NITI Aayog in June 2017 to prepare roadmap for actions in five thematic areas that are quite significant for the Himalayas. These working groups were constituted after NITI Aayog recognised that Himalayan mountains require specific solutions for resilience building that address socio-economic and environmental challenges in the mountain setting.
Key Features of five Thematic reports
- Inventory and Revival of springs in Himalayas for Water Security:
- Nearly 30% of springs, crucial to water security of people in Himalayas are drying and 50% have reported reduced discharge.
- There is need for spring mapping and revival by using eight steps protocol that must be taken up across Himalayan States in phased manner.
- It calls for setting up of Mission on Spring Water Management in Himalayas.
- Sustainable Tourism in Indian Himalayan Region:
- Himalayan Tourism is growing annually at 6.8% and has created huge challenge related to solid waste, water, traffic, loss of bio-cultural diversity etc.
- Projected arrival of tourists will be more than double by 2025.
- Urgent actions are needed to address issues of waste management and water crisis.
- The concept of carrying capacity must be applied to all major tourist destinations.
- Besides tourism sector standards must be implemented and monitored.
- Performance based incentives must be approved for states.
- Himalayan Authority must be launched for coordinated and holistic development of entire Himalayan region.
- “Himalaya Calling: An Awareness to Action Campaign” must be launched as people’s movement.
- Transformative approach to shifting cultivation:
- Thousands of households in north eastern states, continue to practice shifting cultivation i.e. slash and burn (Jhum cultivation) which needs to be addressed in view of ecological, food and nutritional security.
- There is urgent need for assessment of nature and extent of shifting cultivation area.
- Moreover there is need for improved policy coherence, strengthened tenurial security and improved access to related programs for transform shifting cultivation.
- National Mission/Program on Transforming Shifting Cultivation in North Eastern States must be set up.
- Strengthening Skill and Entrepreneurship Landscape in Himalayas:
- The Himalayan states face severe challenge of unskilled workforce and migration of youths.
- There is urgent need to strengthen skill and entrepreneurship workforce in Himalayan region with required focus on identified priority sectors where mountains have advantage, along with investment in trainers, assessors and setting up training centers with industry partnership.
- There is need to set up demand driven network of skill and entrepreneurship development Centers in Himalayan States along with consortium of institutions of high learning for mountain specific research and technology.
- Data/Information for Informed Decision Making:
- Himalayan states face challenges related to data availability, data authenticity, compatibility, data quality, validation, user charges.
- It needs to be addressed for informed decision making at different levels of governance. Central Data Management Agency for Himalayas must be set up to provide data with high fidelity scenario.
- It will help in addressing data sharing, access, authenticity and comparability issues.
- It should be linked with Hindukush Himalaya Monitoring and Assessment program (HIMAP).
- Central Data Management Agency for Himalayan Database must be set up at GB Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development.