Taiwan – UPSC Prelims

  • Taiwan is an island on the southern coast of China.
  • It has its own constitution, democratically-elected leaders and active troops in its armed forces.
  • Taiwan is not a member of the UN (United Nations) and WHO (World Health Organization).
  • Taiwan is a member of WTO (World Trade Organization) and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation(APEC) under the name of “Chinese Taipei”.

What is the China-Taiwan issue?
  • China and Taiwan separated during the China civil war in 1949.
  • However, China still considers Taiwan as part of its territory.
  • But Taiwan considers itself a sovereign country.
Relations between China and Taiwan:
  • The relations between China and Taiwan started improving in the 1980s.
  • China had put forward a formula known as “one country, two systems“.
  • Under which Taiwan would be given significant autonomy if it accepted Chinese reunification.
  • This system was established in Hong Kong to be used as something of a showcase to entice Taiwanese people back to the mainland.
  • However, Taiwan rejected the offer. But it did relax rules on visits to and investment in China. In 1991, it also proclaimed the war with the People’s Republic of China on the mainland to be over.
  • There are also limited unofficial talks between the two sides. But, China declared that Taiwan’s Republic of China(ROC) government is illegitimate. This meant that the government-to-government meetings couldn’t happen.
Note: India and Taiwan do not have formal diplomatic relations. But since 1995, both sides have maintained representative offices in each other’s capitals that function as de facto embassies.
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