Municipal Corporation – UPSC Prelims

Municipal Corporations:
  • In India, the Municipal Corporation is the urban local government that is responsible for the development of any Metropolitan City having a population of more than one million people.
  • The Municipal Corporations are established in the states by the acts of the state legislatures, whereas in the Union Territories through the acts of the Parliament.
  • Municipal governments rely heavily on property tax revenue to fund their operations.
  • The first municipal corporation in India was created in Madras in 1688, followed by municipal corporations in Bombay and Calcutta in 1726.
Need for creation of Municipal Corporation:
  • The growing population and urbanisation in India’s cities necessitated the establishment of a local governing body capable of collecting property taxes and fixed grants from the state government in order to provide essential community services such as health care, education, housing, and transportation.
Constitutional Provisions:
  • In the Constitution of India, no provision was made for the establishment of local self-government, except the incorporation of Article 40 in the Directive Principles of State Policy.
  • The 74th Amendment Act, 1992 has inserted a new Part IX-A into the Constitution which deals with the administration of Municipalities and Nagar Palikas.
  • It consists of Article 243P to 243ZG. It also added a new twelfth schedule to the Constitution. The 12th schedule consists of 18 items.
Composition:
  • Each municipal region is divided into geographical constituencies known as wards based on the population of that particular city.
  • Each ward elects a representative, who is chosen by the residents of that ward. Members of the wards committee are elected for a five-year term on the basis of adult franchise.
  • A councillor or corporator is a chosen representative of a certain ward.
  • The population of a city determines the number of wards in a municipal area. Scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, disadvantaged classes, and women have seats reserved.