Koyna Dam – UPSC Prelims

Koyna Dam:
  • The Koyna Dam is the largest dam in Maharashtra.
  • The Dam is located in Satara District in the Western Ghats.
  • Koyna Dam is a rubble-concrete dam built on the Koyna River which rises in Mahabaleshwar, a hill-station in Sahyadri mountain ranges.
  • The work on Koyna dam was initiated in 1951 and the first turbine started working in 1962.
  • At present the stage V of Koyna Hydroelectric Power Project is under construction.
  • The main purpose of the dam is to provide hydroelectricity with some irrigation facilities in neighboring areas.
  • The Koyna dam supplies water to Paschim Maharashtra as well as to the hydroelectric power to neighboring areas.
  • The dam plays a vital role in flood control in monsoon season.
  • The catchment area dams the Koyna river and forms the Shivsagar Lake which is approximately 50 km in length.
  • It is one of the largest civil engineering projects commissioned after Indian independence.
  • The Koyna hydro-electric project is run by the Maharashtra State Electricity Board.

Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary:
  • It covers an area of around 423.55 km2.
  • It was notified in 1985.
  • In 2007 Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary along with Chandoli National Park was declared as a part of Sahyadri Tiger Reserve declared by The National Tiger Conservation Authority.
Koyna River:
  • The Koyna River is a tributary of the Krishna River which originates in Mahabaleshwar, Satara district, Western Maharashtra.
  • Unlike most of the other rivers in Maharashtra which flow East-West direction, the Koyna River flows in North-South direction.
  • It covers an area of 2,036 km2 in the Deccan terrain of the district of Satara in the state of Maharashtra.
  • With an elevation range of 550 – 1,460 m above mean sea level it typically represents a physiographic setup characterized by the Deccan plateau in the Western Ghats region.
  • It is dammed by the Koyna Dam at Koynanagar forming the Shivsagar reservoir.
  • Koyna River is supported by four tributaries.
  • They are Kera, Wang, Morna and Mahind. Among these rivers Kera, Wang and Morna are dammed.
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